In response to growing support for sustainable international development strategies,
the U.S. Congress has recommended that the Agency for International Development
(AID) create a new Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP) that focuses on the
research needs of sustainable agriculture and natural resource management. The Office
of Agriculture in AID's Bureau for Science and Technology subsequently asked that the
National Research Council's Board on Agriculture (BA) and Board on Science and
Technology for International Development (BOSTID) undertake planning for the new
This book is compiled to provide the reader a critical appreciation of key tools of Lean and Six Sigma and their implementation into both manufacturing and service organizations through drawing upon the research findings of a range of specialist scholars (including academics and practitioners) who have either proposed a conceptual model of framework for Lean/Six Sigma or have empirically gathered an extensive range of new data from organizations in the manufacturing and service sectors across a number of countries.
The charge to this committee—to envision the future of geotechnology—
is at once a grand challenge and a problem. In
many ways, geotechnology is a mature field having come to its
majority in the last 50 years. Many serious problems have been
solved. We know how to build strong foundations, safe dams,
and stable roads and tunnels. We have a good understanding
about the behavior and protection of groundwater, how to
extract the petroleum resources, and develop a geothermal
This collection of papers reflects the diversity of concepts, methods, and case studies that
address the challenge of
Managing for Healthy Ecosystems
as holistic environmental management
in the context of health, integrity, and sustainability.
embodies the capacity of
ecosystems to function without impairment, while
concerns the assessment of ecosystem
conditions relative to social goals and adoption of interventions to achieve designated goals.
This paper describes the challenges of decentralisation and privatisation of rural services from the perspective of communication strategy development. The wave of decentralisation and privatisation in rural services worldwide creates challenges for rural communities, service providers and local governments. Local organisations – both in government and civil society – are confronted with rules and procedures that are unprecedented. The new roles require significant changes in attitudes, skills, and especially a new level of accountability. ...
Therefore, one of the research challenges on sustainability
resides in the link between the form of functioning of the ecosystems towards the structures
and the functionality of the associated social system. This iswhy the information theory based
indicators can grasp the human nature and the elements of the system and make sense.
Like many other patterns, investment in research is often cyclical. International centers like CIMMYT have focused substantial resources on biotic and abiotic stresses for about two decades now, but raising total productivity is also back on the development agenda. There are a number of reasons for this, among them sharp rises in the price of staple foods as well as the manifestation of detrimental effects of climate change on productivity. Those factors threaten not only the livelihoods of resource-poor people but food security at...
The Sun to the Earth—and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in
Solar and Space Physics is the product of an 18-month effort that began in
December 2000, when the National Research Council (NRC) approved a
study to assess the current status and future directions of U.S. ground- and
space-based programs in solar and space physics research. The NRC’s
Space Studies Board and its Committee on Solar and Space Physics organized
the study, which was carried out by five ad hoc study panels and the
15-member Solar and Space Physics Survey Committee, chaired by Louis J.
Natural and social scientists face a great challenge in the coming decades:
to understand the role that humans play in ecosystems, particularly urban
ecosystems. Cities and urbanizing regions are complex coupled humannatural
systems in which people are the dominant agents. As humans
transform natural landscapes into highly human-dominated environments,
they create a new set of ecological conditions by changing ecosystem
processes and dynamics.
One of the greatest challenges South Africa faces is rural poverty and education. This book graphically illustrates the conditions that make the dreams of a better life for all virtually unrealisable in rural areas. Through the voices of rural people themselves, the reader is told
Exciting new observational and theoretical advances lead today's solar physicists to challenge many of the predictions of even recent models. This volume summarizes the major questions at the forefront of solar physics theory and observations, and proposes priority recommendations to explore these questions.
Tham khảo sách 'exploring challenges, progress, and new models for engaging the public in the clinical research enterprise', giáo dục - đào tạo, cao đẳng - đại học phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả
The theme of this talk is that we live in a time of extreme change.
It is an exciting time; essentially everything all design assump-
tions are being re-evaluated. There are research challenges eve-
rywhere. There are no small challenges in this list of revolutions.
Yet, I think our biggest challenge is a unification of approximate
and exact reasoning. Most of us come from the exact-reasoning
world—but most of our clients ...
Current Progress in Biological Research presents new insights into key topics from different areas of the biological sciences. Some of the topics covered in the book are antibiotic susceptibility, genomic rearrangement, historical biogeography, biogeographic patterns, endemism and the use of microorganisms for pest control. The book is an interesting collection of 16 original research articles written by respected experts in their fields. It is hoped that readers will be stimulated and challenged by the contents of this book....
I can safely state that no one truly comprehends the physiology
and pathophysiology of the microvasculature. In a
large measure, this less than desirable state is the result of an
explosion of new scientific data that creates paradoxically
[or maybe poetically] a concomitant explosion of ignorance.
But challenges enhance curiosity. Regardless how far scientists’
understanding may be from the natural laws that
regulate microvessel functions, we share an incumbency
to accumulate and disseminate, by whatever means,
current new concepts based upon the latest tested investigations.
The Chemical Sciences Roundtable (CSR) was established in 1997 by the National
Research Council. It provides a science-oriented apolitical forum for leaders in the chemical
sciences to discuss chemistry-related issues affecting government, industry, and universi-
ties. Organized by the National Research Council’s Board on Chemical Sciences and
Technology, the CSR aims to strengthen the chemical sciences by fostering communication
among the people and organizations—spanning industry, government, universities, and
professional associations—involved with the chemical enterprise.
Penaeidins are a family of antimicrobial peptides constitutively produced and stored in the haemocytes of penaeid shrimp. In response to microbial stimulation, they are released into the blood circulation and they further attach to shrimp cuticle surfaces through a chitin-binding property. In the present paper, we have analysed their expression, regulation and distribution in shrimp tissues in response to experimental microbial challenge.
Along the way to becoming a space-faring species, humanity has faced enormous
challenges. Despite these many initial hurdles, however, the United States has
contributed to the progress of human spaceflight by delivering the lunar landings, the
space shuttle, and, in partnership with other nations, the International Space Station
(ISS). NASA’s rich and successful history has been enabled by, and responsible for,
a strong backbone of scientific and engineering research accomplishments.
Electromyography (EMG) is a technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. EMG may be used clinically for the diagnosis of neuromuscular problems and for assessing biomechanical and motor control deficits and other functional disorders. Furthermore, it can be used as a control signal for interfacing with orthotic and/or prosthetic devices or other rehabilitation assists.