Bat and dolphin use sound to survive and have greatly superior capabilities to current
technology with regard to resolution, object identification and material characterisation.
Some bats can resolve some acoustic pulses thousands of times more efficiently than
current technology (Thomas & Moss, 2004 ). Dolphins are capable of discriminating
different materials based on acoustic energy, again significantly out-performing current
The identiﬁcation of different nominal phrases in a discourse as used to refer to the same (discourse) entity is essential for achieving robust natural language understanding (NLU). The importance of this task is directly ampliﬁed by the ﬁeld of Natural Language Processing (NLP) currently moving towards high-level linguistic tasks requiring NLU capabilities such as e.g. recognizing textual entailment. This tutorial aims at providing the NLP community with a gentle introduction to the task of coreference resolution from both a theoretical and an application-oriented perspective. ...
We present an unsupervised, nonparametric Bayesian approach to coreference resolution which models both global entity identity across a corpus as well as the sequential anaphoric structure within each document. While most existing coreference work is driven by pairwise decisions, our model is fully generative, producing each mention from a combination of global entity properties and local attentional state. Despite being unsupervised, our system achieves a 70.3 MUC F1 measure on the MUC-6 test set, broadly in the range of some recent supervised results. ...
This paper reviews discourse phenomena that occur frequently in task.oriented man.machine dialogs, reporting on a~n empirical study that demonstrates the necessity of handling ellipsis, anaphora, extragrammaticality, inter-sentential metalanguage, and other abbreviatory devices in order to achieve convivial user interaction. Invariably, users prefer to generate terse or fragmentary utterances instead of longer, more complete "standalone" expressions, even when given clear instructions tO the contrary.
Ion implantation represents a particularly useful means by which to modify the
surface properties of a variety of materials. This prosaic statement, however, does not
convey the depth of basic understanding which has been developed to fully utilize the
advantages of ion implantation. The interaction of a host lattice with the energetic
beams produces metastable states and structures which cannot be achieved by other
means. However, ion implantation also requires an understanding of the fundamental
physics and chemistry that dictate the interaction of the ion beam and the target.
Home theater projection has always promised greater viewer
engagement, the prospect of a bigger, more exciting, more
enveloping picture than just television. Greater engagement
requires the screen to fill a larger field of view. This can only be
achieved by sitting closer to the screen or increasing the overall
screen size. But this has always run the risk of exposing image
artifacts that pass without notice on smaller screens.
Building on more than 25 years of research and evaluation work, RAND Education has as its mission the improvement of educational policy and practice in formal and informal settings from early childhood on. RAND is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis.
On the 1st of July, 1769 - a day forever memorable in the annals of California - a small party of men, worn
out by the fatigues and hardships of their long and perilous journey from San Fernandez de Villicatà, came in
sight of the beautiful Bay of San Diego.
From the early days of the ENHPS, countries were provided with a set of criteria
they could use to develop their national networks of health-promoting schools
(Barnekow Rasmussen et al., 1999). These criteria proved to be a very useful
starting-point for the development of national programmes, which would all
adhere to a broad concept of health but also allow the inclusion of necessary
national and regional specificities.
The evolution of technological advances in infrared sensor technology, image processing, “smart”
algorithms, knowledge-based databases, and their overall system integration has resulted in new methods
of research and use in medical infrared imaging. The development of infrared cameras with focal
plane arrays not requiring cooling added a new dimension to this modality. New detector materials
with improved thermal sensitivity are now available and production of high-density focal plane arrays
(640×480) has been achieved.
These disorders are caused by maturational white matter abnormalities and therefore
white matter tractography (using DTI) can offer advantages over conventional MRI in
the detectability of clinically relevant microstructural features. High field strength
structural MR scanning (up to 7 tesla for clinical and research use in humans) is now
available in some countries, and this greatly enhances the spatial resolution over that
offered by standard clinical facilities (typically 1.5 or 3 tesla).
A synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a radar sensor that provides azimuth resolution superior to that achievable with its real beam by synthesizing a long aperture using platform motion. The geometry for the production of the SAR image is shown in Fig. 33.1. The SAR is used to generate an electromagnetic map of the surface of the earth from an airborne or spaceborne platform. This electromagnetic map of the surface
The series Essentials in Ophthalmology was initiated
two years ago to expedite the timely transfer
of new information in vision science and
evidence-based medicine into clinical practice.
We thought that this prospicient idea would be
moved and guided by a resolute commitment
to excellence. It is reasonable to now update our
readers with what has been achieved.
The elderly population is seen differently in developing
and developed countries. In the former, the age limit for
a person to be considered old is 60 years; in the latter,
this age limit is 65 years. This differentiation emerged
during the First United Nations World Summit on
Population Aging, through Resolution number 39/125(1).
The need to establish chronological parameters for old
age becomes more relevant as social and health actions
Successful program management requires managers to plan for and deal with uncertainty, complexity and
ambiguity. Risk management and issue resolution are the vehicles for achieving this. The Government has
decided to strengthen the Cabinet submission and New Policy Proposal process through ensuring a greater
focus on implementation risks.
A risk is an uncertain event or set of event which, should they occur, will have an effect on the achievement of
objectives. These effects might not always be detrimental. A risk can be either a threat (i.e.
The invention of scanning tunneling microscope (STM) by Binnig and his colleagues in
1982 opened up the possibility of imaging material surfaces with spatial resolution much
superior to the conventional microscopy techniques. The STM is the first instrument
capable of directly obtaining three-dimensional images of solid surfaces with atomic
resolution. Even though STM is capable of achieving atomic resolution, it can only be
used on electrical conductors. This limitation has led to the invention of atomic force
microscope (AFM) by Binnig and his co-workers in 1986.
Wallström predicted that many third world countries would support the resolution, forcing
the EU to seek an opt-out from any such agreement by entering a formal reservation.
The commissioner insisted,” The EU must make the most appropriate use of all
economic instruments for achieving sustainability in the aviation sector, as it does in
other sectors," she said. "This means pressing to keep all options--taxation, emissions
charging, and emissions trading--open.
Over the last few years, there has been a convergence between the fields
of ultrafast science, nonlinear optics, optical frequency metrology, and
precision laser spectroscopy. These fields have been developing largely
independently since the birth of the laser, reaching remarkable levels of
As issues or complications arise with regards to project communications it may become
necessary to escalate the issue if a resolution cannot be achieved within the project team. Project
stakeholders may have many different conflicting interests in a given project. While escalations
are a normal part of project management, there must be a documented process that defines how
those escalations will take place.
Efficient and timely communication is the key to successful project completion.
The European Commission contracted RAND Europe and the Trimbos Institute to analyse in detail the operation of the world market in illicit drugs and the policies aimed at curtailing it. This was in the context of the European Union’s Strategy on Drugs 20052012 which calls for evidence-based policies and in turn responds to the EU Resolution adopted by the UN’s Commission on Narcotic Drugs, calling for ‘… an objective, scientific, balanced and transparent assessment by Member States of the global progress achieved and of the difficulties encountered in...