Resource estimates

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  • Clear, practical and comprehensive, this mechanical estimating manual provides an indispensable resource for contractors, estimators, owners and anyone involved with estimating mechanical costs on construction projects, including a wealth of labor and price data, formulas, charts and graphs. Covering time-proven methodologies and procedures, it offers the user a full range of ready-to-use forms, detailed estimating guidelines, and numerous completed examples.

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  • Non-market valuation has become a broadly accepted and widely practiced means of measuring the economic values of the environment and natural resources. In this book, the authors provide a guide to the statistical and econometric practices that economists employ in estimating non-market values. The authors develop the econometric models that underlie the basic methods: contingent valuation, travel cost models, random utility models and hedonic models.

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  • Introduction Global food production has grown faster than the world's population over the past forty years. Yet many poor countries and millions of poor people continue to suffer from food insecurity and hunger. USDA’ Economic Research Service (ERS) estimates that a third of the population of s 67 developing countries— roughly 900 million people— currently suffer

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  • Globalization is the process of coming together as a closely connected global community. It began thousands of years ago, when tribal groups and small hunting parties wandered from place to place. The process accelerated following Columbus’s epic voyage more than five centuries ago. Europeans—an estimated 50 million of them—spread out to occupy lands throughout the world. This migration transformed the distribution of the world’s peoples and their cultures forever. In the United States and Can- ada, for example, most people speak a West European language.

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  • In FY 2003, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) spent nearly $7 billion on transportation, travel, and relocation services from commercial enterprises. Given a continuing need to make the most of existing resources, including those used for transportation, the U.S. Transportation Command (TRANSCOM) asked the

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  • In a recent analysis based on the 2008 worldwide estimates of cancer compiled by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, Lyon, France), it was estimated that 529,512 women were diagnosed with cervical cancer corresponding to an age-standardized incidence rate(ASIR) of 15.4/100,000 and 274,967 women died of the disease, with an age-standardized mortality rate(ASMR) of 7.8/100,0002.

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  • .This page intentionally left blank .Capital Budgeting This book explains the financial appraisal of capital budgeting projects. The coverage extends from the development of basic concepts, principles and techniques to the application of them in increasingly complex and real-world situations. Identification and estimation (including forecasting) of cash flows, project appraisal formulae and the application of net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and other project evaluation criteria are illustrated with a variety of calculation examples.

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  • Companies face risks every day, they are part of normal business life. There are many risks — both threats and opportunities — which may impact on a company‘s resources, projects and profitability. Risk means different things to different businesses and organizations. Undoubtedly, the risk represents both a potential threat and potential opportunity for businesses. Every business and decision involves a certain amount of risk. Risk might cause a loss to a company. This does not mean, however, that businesses cannot take risks.

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  • The rapid economic growth in Vietnam has resulted in an increasing demand for electricity. This in turn translates to a higher rate of coal resource extraction and consequent rise in pollution of water and land resources. This study estimated the environmental costs associated with the electricity demand requirements of the coal electricity sector, as a component of the long-run marginal opportunity cost (LR-MOC) of electricity production.

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  • The Debt Sustainability Framework sets out a proposal by the World Bank for identifying countries in actual or potential debt distress situations leading to a formula for determining grant eligibility within the amounts to be allocated during the Fourteenth Replenishment of IDA. It attempts to classify countries based on the performance of their institutions and policies and determine thresholds for selected debt indicators for each country grouping and then estimate the level of debt distress as measured by the forecast levels of the selected indicators from the country DSAs.

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  • Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are the main pollinating agents for numerous plants and fruit trees and, hence, play a key role in agriculture and more generally in the maintenance of ecological biodiversity. Although these social insects are not the targets of all the different agrochemical treatments used in crop protection, they are widely affected by pesticides.

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  • Wind power generation is considered as the most economic viable alternative within the portfolio of renewable energy resources. Among their advantages are the large number of potential sites for erection and the rapidly evolving technology with many suppliers offering from the individual turbine set to even turnkey projects. The disadvantages of wind energy include high capital costs and lack of controllability on the discontinuous or intermittent resource.

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  • in one form or another. Sensitivity analysis or scenario planning for a project or economic appraisal are familiar examples, as are assessing the contingency allowance in a cost estimate or budget, buying insurance, revising contract provisions or undertaking community consultation during project planning.

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  • Early-Onset drinkers or ‘Survivors’ are those people who have a continuing problem with alcohol which developed in earlier life. It is thought that two thirds of elderly problem drinkers have had an early onset of alcohol misuse. However, because of the health risks connected to heavy drinking and dependence on alcohol, the chances of reaching old age are reduced - one estimate is that the life span of a problem drinker may be shortened by on average ten to fifteen years.

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  • Multiple techniques and channels are used to reach youth, beginning when they are toddlers, to build brand identification and influence food product purchases. Unfortunately, foods marketed to children—from highly sweetened cereals to cookies, candy, fast foods, and soda—are predominantly high in calories, sugar, and fat.

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  • Coastal wetlands throughout the Great Lakes has been recognized as important areas for fish production. These wetlands contribute large numbers of prey species, sport and commercial Large lake fisheries (Herdendorf et al 1986; Herdendorf 1987). Estimates vary on the number of species use the coastal wetlands in the Great Lakes. Whillans (1987) estimated that over 90% about 200 species of fish in the Great Lakes are dependent on wetlands for at least some part of their life cycle while Jude and Pappas (1992) found 47 species closely related to coastal wetlands....

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  • I would like to express my deepest gratitude to all theauthors who contributed to this book by sharing their valuable works with us. This book should prove useful to students, researchers, and experts in the area of conservation biology, genetic diversity, and molecular biology. The year 2010 was celebrated as the international year of biodiversity by the United Nations and it has been a unique opportunity to realize the vital role that biodiversity plays in sustaining the life on Earth.

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  • The (estimated) number of angel investors active both within networks and on an independent basis (individual activity or in syndicates) is estimated to be around 75k in Europe (EBAN, 2010c); the corresponding figure for the US is 259k. Often Business Angels in the US are “Serial Angels” - this means they invest regularly. In terms of overall investment, the amount invested by angels annually is EUR 3 to 5bn in the EU (invested into approx. 2800 companies (2009 data)), compared to USD 20.1bn (approx. EUR 14.9bn) in the US (invested into 61,900 companies (Sohl, 2011)).

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  • Meaning, nature and scope of environmental economics; Environmental concerns- concept of environmental degradation, estimation of economic losses due to environmental degradation and adjustment measures, comparative advantage/disadvantage of alternative technologies on environment and sustainability, environmental policy analysis. Agricultural development and its effect on ecology and environment; Elements of environmental degradation in agriculture-Sub-optimal land use practices like.

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  • The first conclusion of the review was that the later generation of social funds had better integration of sustainability elements in their project design than the earlier generation of social funds. There was more em- phasis on active community participation throughout the project cycle, including at the disbursement and supervision stages in cases when user committees organized maintenance and operated accounts from which they disbursed resources.

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