Natural Resources and Economic Development explores a key para-
dox: why is natural resource exploitation not yielding greater benefits
to the poor economies of Africa, Asia and Latin America?
Part One examines this paradox both through a historical review of
resource use and development and through examining current theories
that explain the under-performance of today’s resource-abundant
economies, and proposes a frontier expansion hypothesis as an alter-
Natural resources conservation is one of the dilemmas currently facing mankind in both developed and the developing world. The topic is of particular importance for the latter, where the majority depend on terrestrial ecosystems for livelihood; more than one billion people live in abject poverty earning less than a dollar per day; more than 3.7 billion suffer from micronutrient deficiency and more than 800 million suffer from chronic hunger.
Limitations on the availabilityof water resourcesareamong the greatest challenges facing
modern society, despite the fact that roughly 70% of the earth’s surface is covered by water.
Human society depends on liquid freshwater resources to meet drinking, sanitation and hy‐
giene, agriculture, and industry needs.Roughly 97% of the earth’s surface and shallow sub‐
surface water is saline and about 2% is frozen in glaciers and polar ice.
We introduce a novel multi-resource allocator to dynam-
ically allocate resources for database servers running on
virtual storage. Multi-resource allocation involves pro-
portioning the database and storage server caches, and
the storage bandwidth between applications according to
overall performance goals. The problem is challenging
due to the interplay between different resources, e.g.,
changing any cache quota affects the access pattern at
the cache/disk levels below it in the storage hierarchy.
Broad-coverage annotated treebanks necessary to train parsers do not exist for many resource-poor languages. The wide availability of parallel text and accurate parsers in English has opened up the possibility of grammar induction through partial transfer across bitext. We consider generative and discriminative models for dependency grammar induction that use word-level alignments and a source language parser (English) to constrain the space of possible target trees.
This paper shows how ﬁnite approximations of long distance dependency (LDD) resolution can be obtained automatically for wide-coverage, robust, probabilistic Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG) resources acquired from treebanks. We extract LFG subcategorisation frames and paths linking LDD reentrancies from f-structures generated automatically for the Penn-II treebank trees and use them in an LDD resolution algorithm to parse new text.
Online forums are becoming a popular resource in the state of the art question answering (QA) systems. Because of its nature as an online community, it contains more updated knowledge than other places. However, going through tedious and redundant posts to look for answers could be very time consuming.
We present a novel algorithm for multilingual dependency parsing that uses annotations from a diverse set of source languages to parse a new unannotated language. Our motivation is to broaden the advantages of multilingual learning to languages that exhibit significant differences from existing resource-rich languages.
We present a Czech-English statistical machine translation system which performs tree-to-tree translation of dependency structures. The only bilingual resource required is a sentence-aligned parallel corpus. All other resources are monolingual. We also refer to an evaluation method and plan to compare our system’s output with a benchmark system.
database maintained by the National Library of Medicine1 (NLM), which incorporates around 40,000 Health Sciences papers each month. Researchers depend on these electronic resources to keep abreast of their rapidly changing field. In order to maintain and update vital indexing references such as the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) resources, the MeSH and SPECIALIST vocabularies, the NLM staff needs to review 400,000 highly-technical papers each year.
We argue that the resource sharing that is commonly manifest in semantic accounts of coordination is instead appropriately handled in terms of structure-sharing in LFG f-structures. We provide an extension to the previous account of LFG semantics (Dalrymple et al., 1993a) according to which dependencies between f-structures are viewed as resources; as a result a one-to-one correspondence between uses of f-structures and meanings is maintained.
Strategic decisions are rarely straightforward or simple. This is
because they involve value judgments that depend to a large degree
on people’s attitudes, perceptions and assumptions. This is why so
many strategic decisions turn out to be ill-judged.
The aim of this book is to help those who have to make strategic decisions
and to throw light on the decision-making process. The first part
focuses on the forces shaping major decisions, including ideas, developments
and potential pitfalls.
An Ecosystem Approach provides a modern perspective of insect ecology that integrates two approaches traditionally used to study insect ecology: evolutionary and ecosystem. This integration substantially broadens the scope of insect ecology and contributes to prediction and resolution of the effects of current environmental changes, as these affect and are affected by insects. The third edition includes an updated and expanded synthesis of feedback and interactions between insects and their environment.
The Thirteenth Replenishment Agreement of the World Bank’s
International Development Association (IDA), covering the period
2003-5 inclusive, introduced grant financing for the first time in IDA’s
40-year history. The Agreement recognized that unsustainable levels of
debt should be a criterion for eligibility of grants for low-income
borrowers, along with criteria such as the exigencies of natural disasters,
conflict and the HIV/AIDS pandemic. In IDA 13, each borrower was
subject to a cap of grant funding equivalent to 40 percent of its total
The power to become habituated to his surroundings is a
marked characteristic of mankind. Very few of us realise with
conviction the intensely unusual, unstable, complicated,
unreliable, temporary nature of the economic organisation by
which Western Europe has lived for the last half century. We
assume some of the most peculiar and temporary of our late
advantages as natural, permanent, and to be depended on, and we
lay our plans accordingly.
The last quarter-century has seen increasing awareness of
the interactions between human societies and the natural
environment in which they thrive and upon which they
depend. This awareness has been heightened by concerns
about resource scarcity, environmental degradation, and
global environmental issues. The combination of increased
awareness of the environment and recognition of the
primitive state of much of the nation’s environmental data has led to a
widespread desire to supplement U.S. national economic accounts to include
natural resources and environmental assets.
Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is growing in importance due to the challenging business
environment faced by organizations throughout the world today. It is particularly critical in industries
undergoing changes in traditional channel configuration. CRM is a means of addressing increasing
competition, changing economic conditions and promotional dependence through the use of intimate
customer knowledge; knowledge gained through relationship development and past marketing programs.
For a timely answer to the question of sustainability, or how to provide for future generations, there
needs to be shared accounting of our social and physical resources. Supply chain transparency makes it
possible to map resource flows and ensure dependable production while avoiding social and environmental
problems. Open channels of communications can support a collective effort to account for the
impacts of supply chains and engage more people in the invention of long-term solutions, or sustainable
For this book I adopted two rules. There were to be no footnotes and all
arguments not essential to its chief conclusions but of interest or even
essential to the specialist were either to be put into smaller print to tell
the general reader that he might pass over them without missing points
on which the conclusions depended, or else were to be assembled in