We report the results of experiments on economic decisions with two populations,
one of healthy elderly individuals (average age 82) and one of younger students (average
age 20). We examine confidence, decisions under uncertainty, differences between
willingness to pay and willingness to accept and the theory of mind (strategic thinking).
Our findings indicate that the older adults’ decision behavior is similar to that of young
adults, contrary to the notion that economic decision making is impaired with age.
Hydrogen peroxide is particularly effective when it reacts with ferrous iron
) to produce Fenton's Reagent. Ferrous iron may be naturally present in the
subsurface soils and/or groundwater, or it can be added as a catalyst solution
together with the hydrogen peroxide to produce this aggressive chemical reaction.
Hydrogen peroxide in the presence of ferrous iron (Fe2+
) reacts to form
hydroxyl radicals (OH•), ferric iron (Fe3+
), and hydroxyl ions (OH-
). The hydroxyl
ions are very powerful oxidizers, and react particularly with organic compounds.
This study investigated the chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of the bamboo
species Phyllostachys pubescens and its utilization potential to manufacture medium
density fiberboard (MDF). The result showed holocellulose and alpha-cellulose content
increased from the base to the top portion. There was no significant variation in Klason
lignin content or ash content from the base to the top portion of the bamboo. The outer
layer had the highest holocellulose, alpha cellulose, and Klason lignin contents and the
lowest extractive and ash contents.
This is a frightening development. There are traces within you – or, depending on your
circumstances and exposures, more than traces – of several hundred man-made chemicals.
Many are harmless (or at least are so far thought to be). Others, however, may cause cancer
and damage the nervous systems, reproductive systems, immune systems, or livers of animals.
Mounting scientific evidence is confirming long-term suspicions that they do the same to
Organic milk production systems rely on ecologically based practices that virtually prohibit the
use of antibiotics and hormones in the cow herd and the use of synthetic chemicals in the
production of cattle feed. Organic milk production systems also attempt to accommodate the
animals’ natural nutritional and behavioral requirements, for example ensuring that dairy cows
have access to pasture (Greene and Kremen).
Under the SRA and cuts specified in the 2008 farm bill, the reimbursement rate for A&O
expenses averaged 18% of total premiums in 2009.
This means that for every $100 in premiums
collected, the companies receive a reimbursement of $18 from the federal government. The
reimbursement rate varies by insurance product, depending on whether it is for a yield-based or a
revenue insurance product.
The SRA places a maximum for A&O reimbursements at $1.3 billion per year (adjusted annually
for inflation) and a minimum at $1.1 billion.
Those alarmed at current health care costs and nostalgic for those of times gone by generally fail to appreciate
that policy makers in the 1920s considered health care too costly and were concerned that the majority of American
households lacked access to it.
As late as 1910, “the cost of health care treatment was considered a minor problem compared to the loss of wages
due to sickness for most workers.”
In the early 1900s, patients either lived or died.
Freshwater sources and oceans have an amazing natural ability to break down some
waste materials, but not in the quantities discarded by today' s society. The overload that
results eventually puts the ecosystem out of balance.
Sometimes nature itself can create these imbalances. But most often our waterways are
being polluted by municipal, agricultural and industrial wastes, including many toxic
synthetic chemicals which cannot be broken down at all by natural processes.
For the past seven years, Apple has been publishing reports on the audits we
perform in our supply chain. We do this because we believe in honestly sharing
our findings—the good and the bad. We’re fixing problems and tackling issues
that our entire industry faces, such as excessive work hours and underage labor.
We’re going deeper into the supply chain than any other company we know of,
and we’re reporting at a level of detail that is unparalleled in our industry.
As in previous annual Outlooks, we established a set of
possible scenarios for the coming year. The majority of this
report is built around the expectations established in the Base
Case, as shown in exhibit 1. The alternative cases, Rebound
and Recession, do not set the outer limits of possible results
but rather acknowledge that there is a real probability that
the market will follow a different path. Each scenario case
represents a set of expectations which work in concert.
The magnitude of this relationship has important policy implications. If there is a
positive effect of mother’s education as knowledge on children’s health, certain type of
policies concerning the diffusion of speciﬁc information at community levels can be
called for. For example, one important channel through which mother’s education as
knowledge can affect child’s health at a community level is through the usage of health
facilities which can serve as a complement or even as a substitute for the mother’s
Human cloning has been one of the most emotive and
divisive issues to face UN negotiators and the international
community in recent years. This report examines how,
that despite a widespread consensus amongst nations
that it is desirable to ban reproductive cloning, efforts to
negotiate an international convention ground to a halt
due to fundamental divisions regarding so-called research
or therapeutic cloning. Firm positions on both sides of the
debate led to the compromise position of a non-binding
UN Declaration on Cloning, (A/RES/59/280).
There is also considerable scope for a South-South exchange of good prac-
tice. Again, when done right, larger-scale farming can provide opportunities for
poor countries with large agricultural sectors and ample endowments of land.
To make the most of these opportunities, however, countries will need to bet-
ter secure local land rights and improve land governance. Adopting an open
and proactive approach to dealing with investors is also needed to ensure that
investment contributes to broader development objectives.
In the future, the domestic voluntary carbon offset market may be largely superseded by a
mandatory U.S. trading program for greenhouse gas emissions. Even if it is, there may be
grounds for government oversight of the voluntary market today. Oversight may be
desirable, for example, to protect consumers and the public interest, to allow learning for
regulators, and to provide greater certainty for investors.
In the last year the Blacksmith Institute and Green Cross Switzerland have been using field studies and
expertise in pollution analysis to prepare estimates on the contribution of industrial toxic pollutants to the
burden of disease. The estimates in this report are based on information collected through the Blacksmith
Institutes Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP). This program is an ongoing process to identify and screen
contaminated sites in low and middle-income countries.
While existing information resources such as the National Database of State Incentives for
Renewable Energy (DSIRE, www.dsireusa.org) have documented available incentive
programs, the effectiveness of such programs is not well understood. Understanding the
impact of current financial incentives on the deployment of renewables—and the factors that
influence their effectiveness—is critical to a variety of stakeholders, particularly for states
considering new incentives or interested in improving or discarding existing ones.
This article summarizes expertise gleaned from the first years of Internet-based experimental research and
presents recommendations on: (1) ideal circumstances for conducting a study on the Internet; (2) what precautions have to
be undertaken in Web experimental design; (3) which techniques have proven useful in Web experimenting; (4) which
frequent errors and misconceptions need to be avoided; and (5) what should be reported. Procedures and solutions for
typical challenges in Web experimenting are discussed.
Taking your car to shows and car corrals also helps to
get it in front of potential buyers. Most car shows don’t
allow cars for sale on the show field, so you’ll want to
rent a space at the car corral and put a For Sale sign on
it. With a field full of potential buyers, and most likely
a bunch interested in your specific marque, a car show
is a perfect venue to sell a car. Interacting with potential
purchasers from the first moment can be an effective
sales tool and result in a quick sale. Costs for car...
The 20 learning weeks are organized in distinct modules that each focus on a specific aspect and / or
level of Business Engineering or underlying disciplines, respectively. Initially, the entire program was
developed independently from other Executive MBA programs and comprised one four-week and 14
one-week modules. Since selected modules of the Executive MBA in Business Engineering are identical
with modules of other Executive MBA programs, a program structure comprising ‘general’ and ‘spe-
cific’ modules was adopted.
Climate change may initially have small positive effects for a few developed
countries, but is likely to be very damaging for the much higher temperature
increases expected by mid- to late-century under BAU scenarios.
In higher latitude regions, such as Canada, Russia and Scandinavia, climate change
may lead to net benefits for temperature increases of 2 or 3°C, through higher
agricultural yields, lower winter mortality, lower heating requirements, and a possible
boost to tourism.