Those alarmed at current health care costs and nostalgic for those of times gone by generally fail to appreciate
that policy makers in the 1920s considered health care too costly and were concerned that the majority of American
households lacked access to it.
As late as 1910, “the cost of health care treatment was considered a minor problem compared to the loss of wages
due to sickness for most workers.”
In the early 1900s, patients either lived or died.
Back in seventh grade I was introduced to the Spectronic 20, or “Spec 20” for short. For
those readers that are unfamiliar, it is essentially a tan breadbox with two dials, an analog
meter, a dial to determine the wavelength transmitted, and a chamber for introducing a
sample in a test tube. The device was originally made by Bausch & Lomb back in 1954, and
even modern iterations reflect the basic, industrial, sturdy simplicity of the original model.
Back in 1980 we were given the charge to determine which wavelengths chlorophyll
Global Scaling Up Handwashing is a Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) project focused on learning
how to apply innovative promotional approaches to behavior change to generate widespread and
sustained improvements in handwashing with soap at scale among women of reproductive age
(ages 15-49) and primary school-aged children (ages 5-9). The project is being implemented by
local and national governments with technical support from WSP. For more information, please visit
Laboratory data for peripheral blood lymphocyte subset analysis
from ten patients with the diagnosis of PTB were examined
retrospectively in the Immunology Unit at King Khalid University
Hospital Riyadh. There were 4 female and 6 male patients with the
mean age of 27 ± 6 years. Diagnosis of PTB was confirmed on
clinical, radiological and microbiological evidence. Blood samples
were collected prior to initiation of anti-tuberculosis therapy. None
of the patients included in the study had any evidence of suffering
from diabetes, HIV infection or autoimmune diseases.
Hydrogen peroxide is particularly effective when it reacts with ferrous iron
) to produce Fenton's Reagent. Ferrous iron may be naturally present in the
subsurface soils and/or groundwater, or it can be added as a catalyst solution
together with the hydrogen peroxide to produce this aggressive chemical reaction.
Hydrogen peroxide in the presence of ferrous iron (Fe2+
) reacts to form
hydroxyl radicals (OH•), ferric iron (Fe3+
), and hydroxyl ions (OH-
). The hydroxyl
ions are very powerful oxidizers, and react particularly with organic compounds.
This study investigated the chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of the bamboo
species Phyllostachys pubescens and its utilization potential to manufacture medium
density fiberboard (MDF). The result showed holocellulose and alpha-cellulose content
increased from the base to the top portion. There was no significant variation in Klason
lignin content or ash content from the base to the top portion of the bamboo. The outer
layer had the highest holocellulose, alpha cellulose, and Klason lignin contents and the
lowest extractive and ash contents.
This is a frightening development. There are traces within you – or, depending on your
circumstances and exposures, more than traces – of several hundred man-made chemicals.
Many are harmless (or at least are so far thought to be). Others, however, may cause cancer
and damage the nervous systems, reproductive systems, immune systems, or livers of animals.
Mounting scientific evidence is confirming long-term suspicions that they do the same to
For the past seven years, Apple has been publishing reports on the audits we
perform in our supply chain. We do this because we believe in honestly sharing
our findings—the good and the bad. We’re fixing problems and tackling issues
that our entire industry faces, such as excessive work hours and underage labor.
We’re going deeper into the supply chain than any other company we know of,
and we’re reporting at a level of detail that is unparalleled in our industry.
Under the SRA and cuts specified in the 2008 farm bill, the reimbursement rate for A&O
expenses averaged 18% of total premiums in 2009.
This means that for every $100 in premiums
collected, the companies receive a reimbursement of $18 from the federal government. The
reimbursement rate varies by insurance product, depending on whether it is for a yield-based or a
revenue insurance product.
The SRA places a maximum for A&O reimbursements at $1.3 billion per year (adjusted annually
for inflation) and a minimum at $1.1 billion.
Freshwater sources and oceans have an amazing natural ability to break down some
waste materials, but not in the quantities discarded by today' s society. The overload that
results eventually puts the ecosystem out of balance.
Sometimes nature itself can create these imbalances. But most often our waterways are
being polluted by municipal, agricultural and industrial wastes, including many toxic
synthetic chemicals which cannot be broken down at all by natural processes.
As in previous annual Outlooks, we established a set of
possible scenarios for the coming year. The majority of this
report is built around the expectations established in the Base
Case, as shown in exhibit 1. The alternative cases, Rebound
and Recession, do not set the outer limits of possible results
but rather acknowledge that there is a real probability that
the market will follow a different path. Each scenario case
represents a set of expectations which work in concert.
The magnitude of this relationship has important policy implications. If there is a
positive effect of mother’s education as knowledge on children’s health, certain type of
policies concerning the diffusion of speciﬁc information at community levels can be
called for. For example, one important channel through which mother’s education as
knowledge can affect child’s health at a community level is through the usage of health
facilities which can serve as a complement or even as a substitute for the mother’s
Human cloning has been one of the most emotive and
divisive issues to face UN negotiators and the international
community in recent years. This report examines how,
that despite a widespread consensus amongst nations
that it is desirable to ban reproductive cloning, efforts to
negotiate an international convention ground to a halt
due to fundamental divisions regarding so-called research
or therapeutic cloning. Firm positions on both sides of the
debate led to the compromise position of a non-binding
UN Declaration on Cloning, (A/RES/59/280).
In the future, the domestic voluntary carbon offset market may be largely superseded by a
mandatory U.S. trading program for greenhouse gas emissions. Even if it is, there may be
grounds for government oversight of the voluntary market today. Oversight may be
desirable, for example, to protect consumers and the public interest, to allow learning for
regulators, and to provide greater certainty for investors.
In the last year the Blacksmith Institute and Green Cross Switzerland have been using field studies and
expertise in pollution analysis to prepare estimates on the contribution of industrial toxic pollutants to the
burden of disease. The estimates in this report are based on information collected through the Blacksmith
Institutes Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP). This program is an ongoing process to identify and screen
contaminated sites in low and middle-income countries.
While existing information resources such as the National Database of State Incentives for
Renewable Energy (DSIRE, www.dsireusa.org) have documented available incentive
programs, the effectiveness of such programs is not well understood. Understanding the
impact of current financial incentives on the deployment of renewables—and the factors that
influence their effectiveness—is critical to a variety of stakeholders, particularly for states
considering new incentives or interested in improving or discarding existing ones.
Taking your car to shows and car corrals also helps to
get it in front of potential buyers. Most car shows don’t
allow cars for sale on the show field, so you’ll want to
rent a space at the car corral and put a For Sale sign on
it. With a field full of potential buyers, and most likely
a bunch interested in your specific marque, a car show
is a perfect venue to sell a car. Interacting with potential
purchasers from the first moment can be an effective
sales tool and result in a quick sale. Costs for car...
The 20 learning weeks are organized in distinct modules that each focus on a specific aspect and / or
level of Business Engineering or underlying disciplines, respectively. Initially, the entire program was
developed independently from other Executive MBA programs and comprised one four-week and 14
one-week modules. Since selected modules of the Executive MBA in Business Engineering are identical
with modules of other Executive MBA programs, a program structure comprising ‘general’ and ‘spe-
cific’ modules was adopted.
Television has attracted young viewers since broadcasting be-
gan in the 1940s. Concerns about its effects on the cognitive devel-
opment of young children emerged almost immediately and have
been fueled by academic research showing a negative association
between early-childhood television viewing and later academic
1 These ﬁndings have contributed to a belief among
the vast majority of pediatricians that television has “negative
effects on brain development” of children below age ﬁve (Gentile
et al. 2004).
Women spend more of their time doing unpaid work than men, including household chores,
childcare, care of elderly and sick family members, and voluntary work. Comparing data collected
in 14 countries through national time use surveys conducted in the period 1999 to 2004, women
aged 25 to 44 spent almost triple the time men did on childcare per day (60 vs. 22 minutes). Women
15-24 also spent 60 minutes more per day preparing food, washing dishes, and cleaning the house
and women 25-44 spent an average of 162 minutes more per day these tasks. The difference is
particularly pronounced in...