We had returned to Japan in the midst of the first rainy season, and all the day through, June 25th, and two nights, a gentle rain fell at Nagasaki, almost without interruption. Across the narrow street from Hotel Japan were two of its guest houses, standing near the front of a wall-faced terrace rising twenty-eight feet above the street and facing the beautiful harbor. They were accessible only by winding stone steps shifting on paved landings to continue the ascent between retaining walls overhung with a wealth of shrubbery clothed in the densest foliage, so green and liquid in...
Creating a Generic Method As well as defining generic classes, you can also use the .NET Framework to create generic methods. A generic method allows you to specify parameters and return type by using a type parameter
Chapter 7 - Defining your own classes (part 2). After studying this chapter you will be able to: Describe how objects are returned from methods, describe how the reserved word this is used, define overloaded methods and constructors, define class methods and variables, describe how the arguments are passed to the parameters using the pass-by-value scheme, document classes with javadoc comments, organize classes into a package.
After completing this chapter, students will be able to: How static methods and fields are associated with an entire class rather than specific instances of the class, to use common Math methods available in the Java API, to understand the mechanisms for passing information between methods, how the method call/return mechanism is supported by the method call stack and activation records,...
After completing this unit, you should be able to: To define methods, to invoke methods with a return value, to invoke methods without a return value, to pass arguments by value; to develop reusable code that is modular, easy to read, easy to debug, and easy to maintain;...
In this chapter you will learn: How static methods and fields are associated with an entire class rather than specific instances of the class, to use common Math methods available in the Java API, to understand the mechanisms for passing information between methods, how the method call/return mechanism is supported by the method call stack and activation records.
The second edition of the New CFO Financial Leadership Manual is designed to give the
Chief Financial Officer (CFO) a complete overview of his or her place in the corporation,
and to provide strategies for how to handle strategic decisions related to a variety of
financial, tax, and information technology issues. Some of the questions that Chapters 1
through 4 answer include:
What should I do during my first days on the job?
What are my specific responsibilities?
How do I reduce my foreign currency exposure?
How do I increase the company’s return on assets?...
This book was motivated by the author’s experience in teaching accounting at
postgraduate level (MBA and MSc) at Aston Business School and in-house training
provided for non-financial managers in many organizations to introduce them to
the use of financial tools and techniques.
My own education as an accountant was aimed at achieving professional recognition
and emphasized an uncritical acceptance of the tools and techniques that
I was taught.
C H A P T E R
Counting the cost – summarizing money variables over time
This chapter will help you to:
■ ■ ■ ■
employ simple and aggregate index numbers to measure price changes over time work out weighted aggregate price indices: Laspeyre and Paasche indices adjust figures for the effects of inflation using price indices apply methods of investment appraisal: accounting rate of return, payback period,
The milk production system in Pakistan is characterized by large
numbers of small, geographically dispersed dairy producers who have
marketable surpluses of milk but face diseconomies of scale in marketing it
to demand centers in distant urban areas. The traditional middlemen who
procure milk from rural areas close to the cities offer at best modest returns
to the farmers. In the past couple of decades, two institutional developments
have taken place in the milk processing sector.
The contamination of metals is a major environmental problem and especially in the aquatic
environment. Some metals are potentially toxic or carcinogenic even at very low
concentration and are thus, hazardous to human if they enter the food chain. Metals are
usually dissolved into the aquatic system through natural or anthropogenic sources. Metal
ions are distributed thoroughly during their transport in different compartments of the
aquatic ecosystems, in biotic or abiotic compartment such as fishes, water, sediment, plant.
But, establishing a lower-than-market interest rate by means of a usury ceiling will also
bring about a decrease in the quantity of credit supplied. Given lenders costs, the amount of
credit they will provide when the interest rate is held down is limited. Like any other
business, if a lender does not recoup its costs and earn an adequate return on its resources, it
will put those resources to work elsewhere.
In some cases the style of a fund is captured using the returns of
other managed portfolios in the same market sector. The OE port-
folio is then a combination of a manager’s peers’ portfolios. With this
approach the measured performance is a zero-sum game, as the average
performance measured in the peer group must be zero. This approach
can make it easy to control for costs and risks, to the extent that
the portfolio and its peers are similar in these dimensions. In such
cases, the performance diﬀerential can be a relatively clean measure
of value added.
When his two older brothers, Fred and Leopold, enlisted in the
army during the Boer War (1899-1902), the thrill-packed letters
home were too much to resist, and one night fourteen-year-old Victor
ran away from home and joined the Life Guards. He never fought,
however, as his father promptly secured his release from military
service. While in the Guards, Victor first learned to use his fists to
protect himself, developing an interest in boxing, and becoming the
The government liability nominal yield curves are derived from UK gilt prices and General Collateral
(GC) repo rates. The real yield curves are derived from UK index-linked bond prices (section 1 below
describes these instruments). By appealing to the Fisher relationship, the implied inflation term
structure is calculated as the difference of instantaneous nominal forward rates and instantaneous real
forward real rates (section 2 makes clear exactly what these terms mean).
With several (not joint) guarantees enhanced by seniority and collateral, each
guaranteeing Member State would again remain liable for its own share of Stability Bond
issuance. However, to ensure that Stability Bonds would always be repaid, even in case of
default, a number of credit enhancements could be considered by the Member States. First,
senior status could be applied to Stability Bond issuance. Second, Stability Bonds could be
partially collateralised (e.g. using cash, gold, shares of public companies etc.).
Given the extensive literature on risk premia in equity markets, relatively little is known about
expected returns and risk premia in the corporate bond market. Recent empirical evidence by
Elton et al. (2001) suggests that corporate bonds earn an expected excess return over default-free
government bonds, even after correcting for the likelihood of default and tax differences. As
shown by Elton et al. (2001), part of this expected excess return is due to the fact that changes
in credit spreads (if no default occurs) are systematic, implying that the risk of these changes
should be priced.
One of the main tasks of economics is to explode the basic in-
flationary fallacy that confused the thinking ofauthors and statesmen
from the days ofJohn Law down to those of Lord Keynes. There
cannot be any question of monetary reconstruction and economic
recovery as long as such fables as that of the blessings of 'expansion-
ism' form an integral part ofofficial doctrine and guide the economic
policies of the nations.
None of the arguments that economics advances against the
inflationist and expansionist doctrine is likely to impress demagogues.
More recent congressional action has focused increasingly on improving
the eff iciency of the payments system by encouraging increased use of
technology. In 1987, Congress enacted the Expedited Funds Availability
Act (EFAA), which gave the Board, for the f irst time, the authority to
regulate the payments system in general, not just those payments made
through the Reserve Banks.
The proposed new local audit regime would continue to provide Parliament with the assurances it needs on public spending. The National Audit Office would prepare the Codes of audit practice, which prescribe the way in which auditors are to carry out their functions, and which would continue to be approved by Parliament, and associated guidance. The National Audit Office would also continue to audit Government departments providing funding to local public bodies and will continue to receive Whole of Government Accounts returns.