Reversed scoring

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  • Individual differences that have consequences for work behaviors (e.g., job performance) are of great concern for organizations, both public and private. General mental ability has been a popular, although much debated, construct in Industrial, Work, and Organizational (IWO) Psychology for almost 100 years. Individuals differ on their endowments of a critical variable—intelligence—and differences on this variable have consequences for life outcomes.

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  • When talking about cryptography, we refer to senders and receivers wishing to exchange messages or plaintext by exchanging ciphertext. It is assumed that an eavesdropper reading ciphertext should not be able to extract corresponding plaintext. This characteristic is called confidentiality. The process performed by a sender to hide plaintext is called encryption, the reverse operation is called decryption. These processes are often expressed as mathematic functions or com- puting algorithms. The encryption and decryption algorithms together constitute a cipher.

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  • With regard to English passage comprehension, the children initially instructed in Spanish and transitioned into English at the end of second grade made the most gains between the end of second grade and the end of fourth grade. At the end of fourth grade, the monolingual English-speaking students had the highest scores, followed by the Spanish-speaking English-instructed students, Spanish-speaking students transitioned at the end of second grade, and Spanish-speaking students transitioned at the end of third grade.

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  • The average results for the G7 imply that lack of cost effectiveness is a major driver of spending inefficiencies in the G7 in tertiary education and health. This may be addressed by increasing competition between suppliers of goods and services to education and health institutions and tackling overspending on specific spending items (e.g., due to overstaffing). In secondary education, the situation is reversed, and G7 countries (except Germany) score worse on system efficiency than on overall spending efficiency.

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