Our first chapter puts LTE into its historical context, and lays out its requirements and key
technical features. We begin by reviewing the architectures of UMTS and GSM, and
by introducing some of the terminology that the two systems use. We then summarize
the history of mobile telecommunication systems, discuss the issues that have driven the
development of LTE, and show how UMTS has evolved first into LTE and then into an
enhanced version known as LTE-Advanced. The chapter closes by reviewing the standardization
process for LTE....
Every year, tens of thousands of young engineers and university graduates enter the
fascinating professional field of radio frequency (RF) design. Most of them have a
reasonable understanding of applied mathematics and physics, circuit theory, electromagnetism,
and electronics as well as computers and programming.
This book is about RF system analysis and design at the level that requires an
understanding of the interaction between the modules of a system so the ultimate
performance can be predicted. It describes concepts that are advanced, that is,
beyond those that are more commonly taught, because these are necessary to the
understanding of effects encountered in practice. It is about answering questions
Modern communication systems require radio frequency and microwave signals for the wireless transmission of information. These systems employ oscillators, mixers, ®lters, and ampli®ers to generate and process various kinds of signals. The transmitter communicates with the receiver via antennas placed on each side. Electrical noise associated with the systems and the channel affects the performance. A system designer needs to know about the channel characteristics and system noise in order to estimate the required power levels....
Electronic circuits are frequently needed for processing a given electrical signal to extract the desired information or characteristics. This includes boosting the strength of a weak signal or ®ltering out certain frequency bands and so forth. Most of these circuits can be modeled as a black box that contains a linear network comprising resistors, inductors, capacitors, and dependent sources. Thus, it may include electronic devices but not the independent sources. Further, it has four terminals, two for input and the other two for output of the signal....
Modulation and Demodulation
Modulation is a technique of imposing information (analog or digital) contained in a lower frequency signal onto a higher frequency signal. The lower frequency is called the modulating signal, the higher frequency signal is called the carrier, and the output signal is called the modulated signal. The beneﬁts of the modulation process are many, such as enabling communication systems to transmit many baseband channels simultaneously at different carrier frequencies without their interfering with each other....
Revised and completely updated, RF/Microwave Circuit Design for Wireless Applications, Second Edition is a unique, state-of-the-art guide to wireless integrated circuit design that provides researchers and engineers with a complete set of modeling, design, and implementation tools for tackling even the newest IC technologies. It emphasizes practical design solutions for high-performance devices and circuitry, incorporating ample examples of novel and clever circuits from high-profile companies.
Temperature measurement and control are vital in many industrial processes.
Accurate control of the temperature is essential in nearly all chemical processes.
In some applications, an accuracy of around 5-10~ may be acceptable. There
are also some industrial applications which require better than 4-1 ~ accuracy.
The third generation (3G) mobile communication system is the next big thing in the world of mobile telecommunications. The first generation included analog mobile phones [e.g., Total Access Communications Systems (TACS), Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT), and Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)], and the second generation (2G) included digital mobile phones [e.g., global system for mobile communications (GSM), personal digital cellular (PDC), and digital AMPS (D-AMPS)].
High integration and low power consumption
15 radio carriers at the Abis sharing an E1 for transmission (15:1)
Support various transmission modes and complex topologies,
e.g. SDH, E1, microwave, satellite etc.
1-minute fast startup
Support GSM900,DCS1800,EGSM and RGSM
Support GSM PHASE 1、PHASE 2 and PHASE 2+
Support GPRS and EDGE
Support baseband hopping and RF hopping
Support FR, HR, EFR and AMR
Support A5/1 and A5/2 encryption/decryption
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Charge-Domain Signal Processing of Direct RF Sampling Mixer with Discrete-Time Filters in Bluetooth and GSM Receivers
In this paper, four state-of-art probabilistic taggers i.e. TnT tagger, TreeTagger, RF tagger and SVM tool, are applied to the Urdu language. For the purpose of the experiment, a syntactic tagset is proposed. A training corpus of 100,000 tokens is used to train the models. Using the lexicon extracted from the training corpus, SVM tool shows the best accuracy of 94.15%. After providing a separate lexicon of 70,568 types, SVM tool again shows the best accuracy of 95.66%.
The purpose of the receiver front end is to ®lter and amplify the incoming GPS signal. As was pointed out earlier, the GPS signal power available at the receiver antenna output terminals is extremely small and can easily be masked by interference from more powerful signals adjacent to the GPS passband. To make the signal usable for digital processing at a later stage, RF ampli®cation in the receiver front end provides as
All wireless communication systems have traditionally employed a radio frequency front end (RF FE) (see Figure 3.1), located between the antenna and the baseband subsystem, the latter commonly implemented with digital signal processing technology. While ‘pure’ software radios anticipate analog-to-digital conversion at the antenna, dispensing with the need for this element of the radio, today’s ‘pragmatic’ software deﬁned radios (SDRs), still (and as will be seen later in this chapter, for the foreseeable future) require an RF FE and place stringent demands thereon....
The subject of software radio emerged as a ‘hot topic’ in mobile communications in the early 1990s, when many people saw the technology as a solution to the problems of complex RF and IF processing required in modern multimode/multiband mobile terminals. Today, software radio is seen more as a technology to enable the reconﬁguration of terminals by download. 1 Such reconﬁguration can be achieved at all stages from design, through production, to post purchase use by the consumer.
Segment Design Tradeoffs
I. OVERVIEW The six steps in the systems-level design process associated with the software radio are illustrated in Figure 6-1. The tradeoffs proceed from front end to back end. The choice of antennas (step 1 in the figure) determines the number and bandwidth of RF channels (step 2). This, in turn, constrains the numbers and bandwidths of ADCs (step 3). Some waveforms may require dedicated ASICs (e.g., W-CDMA despreaders) in front of the ADCs. Additional parallel IF processing and ADC paths may be necessary to support multiple-service bands simultaneously....
The advances of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and devices have been instrumental in the demonstration of new devices and applications, and even in the creation of new fields of research and development: bioMEMS, actuators, microfluidic devices, RF and optical MEMS. Experience indicates a need for MEMS book covering these materials as well as the most important process steps in bulk micro-machining and modeling. We are very pleased to present this book that contains 18 chapters, written by the experts in the field of MEMS. ...
RF/IF Conversion Segment Tradeoffs
This chapter introduces the system-level design tradeoffs of the RF conversion segment. Software radios require wideband RF/IF conversion, large dynamic range, and programmable analog signal processing parameters. In addition, a high-quality SDR architecture includes specific measures to mitigate the interference readily generated by SDR operation.
I. RF CONVERSION ARCHITECTURES The RF conversion segment of the canonical software radio is illustrated in Figure 8-1. The antenna segment may provide a single element for both transmission and reception....
This book deal with the modern developing of microwave and millimeter wave technologies.
The first chapter is aimed at describing the evolution of technological processes for the design
of passive functions in millimetre-wave frequency range. From the results HR SOI seems to
be a good candidate in the coming year to address both low cost and low power mass market
CMOS digital and RF/ MMW applications.