Differentiation Features of RFID Systems
Fundamental Differentiation Features
RFID systems exist in countless variants, produced by an almost equally high number of manufacturers. If we are to maintain an overview of RFID systems we must seek out features that can be used to differentiate one RFID system from another (Figure 2.1). RFID systems operate according to one of two basic procedures: full duplex (FDX)/ half duplex (HDX) systems, and sequential systems (SEQ). In full and half duplex systems the transponder’s response is broadcast when the reader’s RF ﬁeld is switched on....
Physical Principles of RFID Systems
The vast majority of RFID systems operate according to the principle of inductive coupling. Therefore, understanding of the procedures of power and data transfer requires a thorough grounding in the physical principles of magnetic phenomena. This chapter therefore contains a particularly intensive study of the theory of magnetic ﬁelds from the point of view of RFID.
Radio frequency identifi cation (RFID) technology is a wireless communication
technology that enables users to uniquely identify tagged objects or people.
RFID is rapidly becoming a cost-effective technology. This is in large part
due to the efforts of Wal-Mart and the Department of Defense (DoD)
incorporate RFID technology into their supply chains. In 2003, with the
of enabling pallet-level tracking of inventory, Wal-Mart issued an RFID
mandate requiring its top suppliers to begin tagging pallets and cases, with
Electronic Product Code (EPC) labels.
Frequency Ranges and Radio Licensing Regulations
5.1 Frequency Ranges Used
Because RFID systems generate and radiate electromagnetic waves, they are legally classiﬁed as radio systems. The function of other radio services must under no circumstances be disrupted or impaired by the operation of RFID systems.
RFID systems are increasingly being used in high security applications, such as access systems and systems for making payments or issuing tickets. However, the use of RFID systems in these applications necessitates the use of security measures to protect against attempted attacks, in which people try to trick the RFID system in order to gain unauthorised access to buildings or avail themselves of services (tickets) without paying.
The number of applications for RFID systems has increased each year and various
research directions have been developed to improve the performance of these systems.
Therefore IN-TECH publisher has decided to continue the series of books dedicated to the
latest results of research in the RFID field and launch a new book, entitled “Radio Frequency
Identification Fundamentals and Applications, Design Methods and Solutions”, which
could support the further development of RFID.
Coding and Modulation
The block diagram in Figure 6.1 describes a digital communication system. Similarly, data transfer between reader and transponder in an RFID system requires three main functional blocks. From the reader to the transponder — the direction of data transfer — these are: signal coding (signal processing) and the modulator (carrier circuit) in the reader (transmitter), the transmission medium (channel ), and the demodulator (carrier circuit) and signal decoding (signal processing) in the transponder (receiver)....
The Architecture of Electronic Data Carriers
Before we describe the functionality of the data carriers used in RFID systems we must ﬁrst differentiate between two fundamental operating principles: there are electronic data carriers based upon integrated circuits (microchips) and data carriers that exploit physical effects for data storage. Both 1-bit transponders and surface wave components belong to the latter category.
This is the third revised edition of the established and trusted RFID Handbook; the most comprehensive introduction to radio frequency identification (RFID) available.
This essential new edition contains information on electronic product code (EPC) and the EPC global network, and explains near-field communication (NFC) in depth. It includes revisions on chapters devoted to the physical principles of RFID systems and microprocessors, and supplies up-to-date details on relevant standards and regulations....
The book generously covers a wide range of aspects and issues related to RFID systems, namely the design of RFID antennas, RFID readers and the variety of tags (e.g. UHF tags for sensing applications, surface acoustic wave RFID tags, smart RFID tags), complex RFID systems, security and privacy issues in RFID applications, as well as the selection of encryption algorithms.
The number of different applications for RFID systems is increasing each year and various research directions have been developed to improve the performance of these systems. With this book InTech continues a series of publications dedicated to the latest research results in the RFID field, supporting the further development of RFID. One of the best ways of documenting within the domain of RFID technology is to analyze and learn from those who have trodden the RFID path.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về sinh học được đăng trên tạp chí sinh học Journal of Biology đề tài:
Research Article A Baseband Signal Processing Scheme for Joint Data Frame Synchronization and Symbol Decoding for RFID Systems
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài:
Research Article TOA Estimator for UWB Backscattering RFID System with Clutter Suppression Capability
"Network and system security" provides focused coverage of network and system security technologies. It explores practical solutions to a wide range of network and systems security issues. Chapters are authored by leading experts in the field and address the immediate and long-term challenges in the authors’ respective areas of expertise. Coverage includes building a secure organization, cryptography, system intrusion, UNIX and Linux security, Internet security, intranet security, LAN security; wireless network security, cellular network security, RFID security, and more.
In recent years automatic identiﬁcation procedures (Auto-ID) have become very popular in many service industries, purchasing and distribution logistics, industry, manufacturing companies and material ﬂow systems. Automatic identiﬁcation procedures exist to provide information about people, animals, goods and products in transit. The omnipresent barcode labels that triggered a revolution in identiﬁcation systems some considerable time ago, are being found to be inadequate in an increasing number of cases....
Fundamental Operating Principles
This chapter describes the basic interaction between transponder and reader, in particular the power supply to the transponder and the data transfer between transponder and reader (Figure 3.1). For a more in-depth description of the physical interactions and mathematical models relating to inductive coupling or backscatter systems please refer to Chapter 4.
Nutshell Handbook, the Nutshell Handbook logo, and the O’Reilly logo are registered trademarks of O’Reilly Media, Inc. Getting Started with RFID and related trade dress are trademarks of O’Reilly Media, Inc. Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and O’Reilly Media, Inc., was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in caps or initial caps.
Increase speed and efficiency throughout the retail process with fewer errors Improve efficiencies for billing, reporting and end of day settlement Gain greater control over costly inventory management Increase overall labor productivity and decrease overall labor cost Provide real-time connectivity between production floor and retail floor, thus reduce minimum stock level requirement
You’ll learn how to
• Generate stored-value fare cards
• Reverse engineer magstripes
• Hack RFID cards
• Use software radio to sniff
• Use FPGAs to brute force
• Tap into the fare vending network
• Social engineer