In conducting their operations, farmers are exposed to financial losses
because of production risks—droughts, floods, and other natural
disasters—as well as price risks. The federal government has played an
active role in helping to mitigate the effects of these risks on farm income
by promoting the use of crop insurance. RMA has overall responsibility for
administering the federal crop insurance program, including controlling
costs and protecting against fraud, waste, and abuse.
Second, it should not be forgot that several neuroprotectant have failed not because
they lacked efficacy, but because they revealed unexpected side effects. Many NMDAreceptor
antagonists were discarded because in clinical trials they showed psychedelic
unwanted effects. Tirilazad, an antioxidant belonging to the “lazaroid” class of
antioxidants, unexpectedly worsened outcome of ischemic stroke, a fact very likely
explained by some unexpected toxic action(s) that offset its neuroprotective ability.
Another major role of marketing relates to change in ownership. Agricultural goods, like most
other goods, have value only in terms of their usefulness -- utility -- to consumers. The pricing
and exchange functions associated with possession are the heart of marketing.
Pricing is the determination of market values in terms of money. Buyers and sellers at a given
time agree on a common evaluation. Prices may vary from day to day or hour to hour,
depending on demand and supply. But, in time, prices of different commodities seek different
levels in accordance with...
remains the principal source of funding and distribution, even when
only a relatively small proportion of production is conducted entirely
in-house. Technically independent productions include Hollywood
blockbusters such as Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991) and Basic
Instinct (1992), produced by the independent Carolco in an alliance
with TriStar Pictures.
NO2 is a product of combustion. It is a precursor to ground-level ozone formation
through photochemical reactions involving VOCs. NO2 causes a brown colour in the
atmosphere at elevated concentrations. It reacts in the atmosphere with ammonia to
form fine particulates, which reduce visibility and increase PM2.5 concentrations
(Levelton Engineering Limited, 2000).
NO2 irritates the mucous membranes in the respiratory tract.
The StanMark project brings together researchers and policy‐makers to develop a set of standards
for marketing foods and beverages consistent with the resolution of the World Health Assembly.
Convene a series of meetings in Europe and the USA to bring together key members of the scientific
research community and policy‐making community to consider how marketing food and beverages
may affect children’s health.
Sales charges are the commissions that you
may have to pay when you buy or sell a fund. If
you pay this charge when you buy the fund, it’s
called an initial sales charge or front-end load.
If you pay it when you sell, it’s called a deferred
sales charge or back-end load. Some funds are
sold on a “no-load” basis, which means you
pay no sales charge when you buy or sell.
Comparing sales charge options
With initial sales charges, the cost can vary
from firm to firm and may be negotiable. Shop
around, and remember that every dollar you
pay in commission is a...
Muirhead (1987) reviews the large literature on shrinkage estimators of the covariance
matrix in ﬁnite-sample statistical decision theory. All these estimators suﬀer from at least two
severe drawbacks, either of which is enough to make them ill-suited to stock returns: (i) they
break down when N T; (ii) they do not exploit the a priori knowledge that stock returns
tend to be positively correlated to one another.
Managed care prevalence in the market can also impact
the climate in which the elderly seek care. The availability
of managed care plans for the elderly could improve elderly
access to and utilization of preventive care services, if
the Medicare managed care plans fulfill their promise –
more specifically, the management and coordination of
care. A growing body of literature has found that Medicare
beneficiaries in HMOs receive more preventive services
and have better outcomes than their FFS counterparts.
But risk factors don’t tell us everything. Having a risk factor, or even several risk factors,
does not mean that you will get the disease. And some people who get the disease may have
few or no known risk factors. Even if a person with basal or squamous cell skin cancer has a
risk factor, it is often very hard to know how much that risk factor may have contributed to
The following are known risk factors for basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas. (These
factors don't necessarily apply to other forms of non-melanoma skin cancer, such as...
Second, economic adjustment within the euro area is continuing. This is most visible in the reduction of
large current-account deficits driven by partly permanent declines in domestic absorption and gains in
competitiveness, but is also apparent in gradually rising wages and domestic demand in surplus countries.
Internal and external adjustment has farther to go, and it will have to be sustained over time to see an
impact on stocks of domestic and external liabilities.
Rubber is indigenous to South America. Many attempts to start a viable rubber industry in that region have
met with failure because of the presence of SALB and the lack of a cost-effective management tools in that
region. SALB spreads rapidly causing severe leaf fall and twig dieback. Chemical control that involves repeated
fungicide applications to trees of great height has been found to be expensive and impractical.
Because there is significant variation and overlap in the appearance of dif-
ferent etiologies of vaginitis, objective testing should always be undertaken.
Any symptomatic, colored, or foul-smelling discharge should be sampled
from the lateral vaginal wall for microscopic examination. Such specimens
usually are obtained before other testing to decrease the presence of red blood
cells. Secretions are mixed with a small amount of normal saline either in a
test tube or on a slide with a protective cover slip to prevent air-drying.
The effectiveness of screening in the NHSBSP is influenced by pro-
gramme factors, such as the introduction of two views and the opti-
misation of optical density, and also by population factors, such as the
increasing use of hormone replacement therapy during the 1990s.
The current NHSBSP saves an estimated 1400 lives each year in Eng-
The NHSBSP now diagnoses about half of all breast cancers found
in women in the target age range of 50–70 years, with the remainder
occurring in women who do not attend for screening or who present
symptomatically in the interval between screens.
National financial literacy surveys are clearly important tools, but the potential gain from a survey
undertaken across a number of countries is much greater. Such an international study provides the
opportunity to compare levels of financial literacy and progress across populations and financial markets,
and is of huge interest to policy makers and other stakeholders seeking to understand why one country
appears to be achieving more than another and which interventions are most effective.
Our analysis also contributes to assessing market e¢ ciency in a way that
it investigates how the markets price in information about banks and how this
process may di§er across di§erent types of banks. To that end, we apply a
large panel of 53 EU banks using a stationary vector autoregressive (VAR) sys-
tem that allows us to focus on such Örm-level e§ects. A further contribution
to the literature is provided by the fact that we also want to analyse whether
large banksístock prices could be a§ected by di§erent factors than small banksí
We could not locate any studies in marketing or in the
general ﬁeld of education on whether pictures affect
students’ attention to education materials. However, there
are studies on student preferences. Levie and Lentz,  and
Levie  in reviewing research on pictures in education cite
research showing that children prefer stories with pictures to
ones with no pictures and that audio–visual presentations are
rated as more enjoyable and interesting if accompanied by
Two tests are available to screen for prostate cancer: prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and digital rectal
examination (DRE). The first of these is a blood test, and the second is a physical examination by a
doctor where a finger is passed into the rectum to directly feel for enlargement or a nodule in the
prostate gland. The subsequent diagnostic test is a prostatic biopsy taken through the rectum. This
paper will discuss the use of PSA as part of a screening program. In clinical practice DRE is used to
supplement rather than replace PSA.
Wilson and Jungner described a...
Consistent with real-life credit-card and subprime mortgage
contracts but (we argue) inconsistent with natural specifications of rational time-consistent
theories, in the competitive equilibrium of our model firms offer seemingly cheap credit to be
repaid quickly, but introduce large penalties for falling behind this front-loaded repayment schedule.
The contracts are designed so that borrowers who underestimate their taste for immediate
gratification both pay the penalties and repay in an ex ante suboptimal back-loaded manner
more often than they predict or prefer.
In part, this small-scale sub-sector of poultry production has grown in
response to a market demand for poultry that is raised using
production systems outside of the conventional, confinement,
Free-range poultry, heritage poultry varieties, organic certification and
other characteristics are used by farmers to distinguish their products
and to help earn a margin that enables them to be profitable despite
their small volume of production.