This is the VOA Special English Health Report.
Researchers say more than half of young people who use MySpace often discuss highrisk
Two studies of the social networking site recently appeared in the Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent
RISKY HEALTH. BEHAVIORS AND PUBLIC POLICY Consistent with the results on within-market sorting, I
also find no evidence that Tiebout choice increases average SAT scores across markets, as
would be expected if choice increases competitive pressure for administrators to run
Asset prices are determined by investors’ risk preferences and by the distributions
of assets’ risky future payments. Economists refer to these two bases
of prices as investor "tastes" and the economy’s "technologies" for generating
asset returns. A satisfactory theory of asset valuation must consider how individuals
allocate their wealth among assets having different future payments.
This chapter explores the development of expected utility theory, the standard
approach for modeling investor choices over risky assets....
How people deal with risks is one of the most interesting aspects of the human
condition. Perceptions of risk are complex, and people deal with risks in different,
often irrational, ways. Young, healthy people consider themselves immortal and
immune from long-term, degenerative diseases. As a consequence they engage in
risky dietary and smoking behaviors that enhance the chances of such diseases in
We find that trusting individuals are significantly more likely to buy stocks and risky assets
and, conditional on investing in stock, they invest a larger share of their wealth in it. This effect
is economically very important: trusting others increases the probability of buying stock by
50% of the average sample probability and raises the share invested in stock by 3.4 percentage
points (15.5% of the sample mean).
These results are robust to controlling for differences in risk aversion and ambiguity aversion.
The American health care system is challenged on many fronts. Every day,
there are reports of medical errors and patient safety concerns. The nation
struggles to provide care for the 15% of the population without health insurance.
Costs continue to grow two to three times faster than the cost of living.
Consumers leave their costly and risky encounters with less and less satisfaction
that they have received the value they feel they deserve and desire.
Neglected Tropical Diseases and other infectious disease threats: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) and soil transmitted helminthaisis (STH) are endemic throughout Indonesia; Indonesia accounts for 9.3% of the world’s at-risk population, with an estimated 125-200 million people at-risk for LF nationally. STH is a widespread problem affecting child health and development. In 2011, USAID began to provide critical support to the National LF Elimination Plan and national program for control of STH.
Thirty-one years ago the yield on corporate Aaa bonds reached its 100-year peak of 15.5%. That date was in
September, 1981, and rates for corporate bonds and U.S. Treasuries have fallen ever since, with both rates
resting near 100-year lows today. This trend can’t last forever of course, and today many bond investors are
grappling with the notion of a rising interest rate environment.
Funders and lawmakers are increasingly requiring that adolescent pregnancy and
STI/HIV prevention programs be based on effective prevention strategies to be considered
for funding. Moreover, for funding to continue, programs are now generally
expected to document their own effectiveness in preventing adolescent pregnancy
or STI/HIV or in changing the risky sexual behaviors antecedent to these problems.
Behavioral change, as opposed to knowledge or attitudinal change alone, is the
standard criterion of effectiveness....
This chapter proceeds from an ecological framework, which recognizes that multiple aspects of
an adolescent's life may affect their reproductive health experiences, including a teen's family
environment, their individual attitudes and behaviors, and peer attitudes and behaviors. In
addition, the characteristics of a teen's community, including school context, neighborhood
environment, and broader policies may affect reproductive health behaviors.
The neighborhoods and communities that adolescents live in may also influence their
reproductive health behaviors. Numerous studies show that adolescents living in disadvantaged
communities with high poverty rates and low levels of socioeconomic status have a greater risk
of early sexual initiation and a greater risk of adolescent pregnancy and childbearing (Brewster,
Billy, & Grady, 1993; Hogan & Kitagawa, 1985; Sucoff & Upchurch, 1998). Alternately, living
in a community with higher socioeconomic status is associated with a reduced risk of risky
Over the last twenty years, the field of behavioral finance has grown from a
startup operation into a mature enterprise, with well-developed bodies of both theory and
empirical evidence. On the empirical side, the benchmark null hypothesis is that one
should not be able to forecast a stock’s return with anything other than measures of its
riskiness, such as its beta; this hypothesis embodies the familiar idea that any other form
of predictability would represent a profitable trading rule and hence a free lunch to
As the Internet has changed communication, commerce, and the
distribution of information, so too it is changing psychological research.
Psychologists can observe new or rare phenomena online and can do
research on traditional psychological topics more efficiently, enabling
them to expand the scale and scope of their research. Yet these
opportunities entail risk both to research quality and to human subjects.
Internet research is inherently no more risky than traditional observational,
survey or experimental methods.