RNA processing

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  • Chapter 21 (part 2) - Transcriptional regulation and RNA processing. After completing this chapter, students will be able to: Know the functions of the beta, beta’ and alpha subunits; know the function of the sigma factor and how it affects the binding of the RNA polymerase complex to the promoter; know what concensus sequences are; know the names of the two major concensus sequences associated with the ER. Coli promoter region (-35 region and the Pribnow box (-10 region);....

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  • RNA processing is an essential process in eukaryotic cells, creating different RNA species from one and the same gene. RNA processing occurs on nearly all kinds of RNAs, including mRNA that codes for proteins, ribosomal RNA, tRNA, snRNAs, and RNA. RNA processing usually occurs co-transcriptionally, and many factors are recruited by the RNA polymerase itself. This stimulates RNA processing by enhancing the correct assembly of factors as the RNA is being produced. Some factors, such as splice factors and cleavage factors for rRNA, are also recruited by the growing RNA-chain.

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  • Chapter 14 - Messenger RNA processing I: Splicing. In this chapter we will see that most eukaryotic genes, in contrast to typical bacterial genes, are interrupted by noncoding DNA. RNA polymerase cannot distinguish the coding region of the gene from the noncoding regions, so it transcribes everything.

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  • Chapter 16 - Other RNA processing events. This chapter includes contents: Ribosomal RNA processing, transfer RNA processing, trans-splicing, RNA editing, posttranscriptional control of gene expression, post-transcriptional control of gene expression: RNA interference.

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  • Chapter 15 - RNA Processing II: Capping and Polyadenylation. Besides splicing, eukaryotic cells perform several other kinds of processing on their RNAs. Messenger RNAs are subject to two kinds of processing, known as capping and polyadenylation. In capping, a special blocking nucleotide (a cap) is added to the 59-end of a pre-mRNA. In polyadenylation, a string of AMPs (poly[A]) is added to the 39-end of the pre-mRNA. These steps are essential for the proper function of mRNAs and will be topics in this chapter.

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  • Chapter 16 - Other RNA processing events. This chapter includes contents: Ribosomal RNA processing, transfer RNA processing, trans-splicing, RNA editing, posttranscriptional control of gene expression, post-transcriptional control of gene expression: RNA interference.

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  • The RNA degradosome is built on the C-terminal half of ribonuclease E (RNase E) which shows high sequence variation, even amongst closely related species. This is intriguing given its central role in RNA processing and mRNA decay. Previously, we have identified RhlB (ATP-dependent DEAD-box RNA helicase)-binding

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  • RNA helicase II⁄Guais a multifunctional nucleolar protein involved in ribosomal RNA processing inXenopus laevisoocytes and mammalian cells. Downregulation of Guausing small interfering RNA (siRNA) in HeLa cells resulted in 80% inhibition of both 18S and 28S rRNA production. The mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. Here we show that in mammalian cells, Guaphysically interacts with ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4), a component of 60S ribosome large subunit.

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  • distribute, transmit, and adapt the work in any medium, so long as the original work is properly cited. After this work has been published by InTech, authors have the right to republish it, in whole or part, in any publication of which they are the author,

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  • Besides splicing, eukaryotic cells perform several other kinds of processing on their RNAs. Messenger RNAs are subject to two kinds of processing, known as capping and polyadenylation. In capping, a special blocking nucleotide (a cap) is added to the 59-end of a pre-mRNA. In polyadenylation, a string of AMPs (poly[A]) is added to the 39-end of the pre-mRNA. These steps are essential for the proper function of mRNAs and will be topics in this chapter.

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  • In chapter 14, we will see that most eukaryotic genes, in contrast to typical bacterial genes, are interrupted by noncoding DNA. RNA polymerase cannot distinguish the coding region of the gene from the noncoding regions, so it transcribes everything.

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  • Difficulty in addressing contamination in low permeability soils may be alleviated to some degree by controlled pneumatic or hydraulic fracturing of the soil. However, engineered hydraulic fractures generally cannot be spaced more closely than about 5 feet, which means that chemical oxidants must still penetrate a substantial thickness of low permeability soil to come into contact with the contamination. Deep soil mixing with large diameter drill augers is the most effective method currently available to increase contact between adsorbed contaminants and the oxidants.

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  • 1928, Frederick Griffith, was one of the first experiments suggesting that bacteria are capable of transferring genetic information through a process known as transformation § 1944:Avery, MacLeod & McCarty - Strong evidence that DNA is genetic material § 1950:Chargaff - careful analysis of DNA from a wide variety of organisms.

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  • Protein phosphorylation is a reversible posttranslational modification catalyzed by protein kinases and reversely by protein phosphatases. There are about 500 protein kinases and 25-30 phosphatases in human genome. Each kinase and phosphatase targets multiple substrates. Thus, protein phosphorylation is a most versatile signaling regulatory mechanism and constitutes a most complicated signaling network in living organisms. In fact, protein phosphorylation governs all aspects of physiological and pathological processes in human health....

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  • Because P2P systems designers have to a large extent failed to overcome these challenges, the semantics provided by these systems is typically quite weak. In most content sharing systems, only popular content is readily accessible — yet content popularity seems to be driven by Zipf distributions, in which a large fraction of requests are directed to unpopular content. Similarly, current content sharing systems ignore problems such as updates to content, and they typically only support retrieval of objects by name.

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  • Definition and Differential Diagnosis PRCA is characterized by anemia, reticulocytopenia, and absent or rare erythroid precursor cells in the bone marrow. The classification of PRCA is shown in Table 102-4. In adults, PRCA is acquired. An identical syndrome can occur constitutionally: Diamond-Blackfan anemia, or congenital PRCA, is diagnosed at birth or in early childhood and often responds to glucocorticoid treatment; a minority of patients have etiologic mutations in a ribosomal RNA processing gene called RPS19.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về sinh học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Molecular Biology cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành sinh học đề tài: An image processing approach to computing distances between RNA secondary structures dot plots...

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học 'Respiratory Research cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Murine leukemia virus RNA dimerization is coupled to transcription and splicing processes...

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  • Addressing the options for domestic sustainable agriculture policies in developing countries, it is generally observed that the world’s agriculture trade system is progressively moving towards an open-market system, a process which is desirable from both a trade as well as a sustainable development point of view.

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  • Alterations in the normal DNA methylation processes are known to have major consequences for embryonic development and are associated with congenital defects, autoimmunity, aging and malignant transformation. The main purpose of this book is to provide information about the importance of methylation mechanisms in human health and disease.

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