When they hear the word ‘robot’, many people immediately think of the R2-D2 or the
robots of the film I, Robot. These are robots similar to humans in some ways, but not in
all. There are many kinds of robot, one major group being the mobile robots, sometimes
called mobile platforms. Examples of mobile robots include the human-like robots
mentioned above and a wide range that mimic animals. Some walk about on six legs, like
insects, and others jump around like frogs.
A humanoid robot is a robot with the overall appearance based on the human body
(Hirai et al., 1998, Hirukawa et al, 2004). Humanoid robot was created to mimic some
physically and mentally the same task that people experience every day. They are suitable to co-exist
with people in an integrated environment for people because of their Anthropomorphism, people
friendly design and application of the motor (Kaneko et al, 2002).
In nature, it is possible to observe a cooperative behaviour in all animals, since, according to Charles Darwin’s theory, every being, from ants to human beings, form groups in which most individuals work for the common good. However, although study of dozens of social species has been done for a century, details of how and why cooperation evolved remain to be worked out. Actually, cooperative behaviour has been studied from different points of view.
Such jobs would then be gone, to be replaced by jobs requiring much more
sophisticated mathematical training. The mathematics needed for these
machines, as was case with engines, has been the main impediment to actual
wide-scale implementation of such robotic mechanisms. Recently, it has
become clear that the key mathematics is available, (the mathematics of
algebraic and geometric topology, developed over the last 80 - 90 years),
and we have begun to make dramatic progress in creating the programs
needed to make such machines work.
In recent years, parallel kinematics mechanisms have attracted a lot of attention from the
academic and industrial communities due to potential applications not only as robot manipulators
but also as machine tools. Generally, the criteria used to compare the performance
of traditional serial robots and parallel robots are the workspace, the ratio between the
payload and the robot mass, accuracy, and dynamic behaviour.