The reconfiguration was too ambitious. It attempted simultaneously to introduce a new routing protocol and a new
See the Tutorial "Routing Principles and IOS Implementation Considerations" for a discussion of how routes are
chosen for routing table installation. The person writing this first configuration forgot that prefix length -- the number of
one bits in the subnet mask -- is considered before administrative distance.
While he correctly observed that OSPF's administrative distance is higher (i.e.
Principles of Pharmacokinetics The processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion— collectively termed drug disposition—determine the concentration of drug delivered to target effector molecules.
When a drug is administered orally, subcutaneously, intramuscularly, rectally, sublingually, or directly into desired sites of action, the amount of drug actually entering the systemic circulation may be less than with the intravenous route (Fig. 5-2A ).
Clinical Implications of Altered Bioavailability Some drugs undergo near-complete presystemic metabolism and thus cannot be administered orally. Nitroglycerin cannot be used orally because it is completely extracted prior to reaching the systemic circulation. The drug is therefore used by the sublingual or transdermal routes, which bypass presystemic metabolism.
Some drugs with very extensive presystemic metabolism can still be administered by the oral route, using much higher doses than those required intravenously.
Principles of Vaccine Use
Route of Administration
Microbes differ in their routes of infection, patterns of transmission, and predispositions for certain age groups. The route of vaccine administration (oral, intranasal, intradermal, transdermal, subcutaneous, or intramuscular) takes these factors into account in order to maximize protection and minimize adverse events. Vaccine development is more a pragmatic undertaking than an exact science, guided only in part by immunologic principles and shaped largely by the results of clinical trials.
Following demonstration of activity in animal models, conventional chemotherapeutic agents are further evaluated to define an optimal schedule of administration and arrive at a drug formulation designed for a given route and schedule. Safety testing in two species on an analogous schedule of administration defines the starting dose for a phase I trial in humans. This is established as a fraction, usually one-sixth to one-tenth, of the dose just causing easily reversible toxicity in the more sensitive animal species.
In this chapter, students will be able to understand: Routers receive packets and use the most efficient path to forward them to their destinations, complex internetworks can have redundant routers that provide multiple paths to the same destination, routers store information about the network in a routing table,...
Chapter 11 - TCP/IP configuration. In this chapter, students will be able to understand: Routers receive packets and use the most efficient path to forward them to their destinations, complex internetworks can have redundant routers that provide multiple paths to the same destination, routers store information about the network in a routing table,...
This book describes the TCP/IP protocol suite, but from a different perspective than other
texts on TCP/IP. Instead of just describing the protocols and what they do, we'll use a
popular diagnostic tool to watch the protocols in action. Seeing how the protocols operate in
varying circumstances provides a greater understanding of how they work and why certain
design decisions were made. It also provides a look into the implementation of the protocols,
without having to wade through thousands of lines of source code....
This design guide defines the comprehensive functional components required to build a site-to-site
virtual private network (VPN) system in the context of enterprise wide area network (WAN)
connectivity. This design guide covers the design topology of point-to-point (p2p) Generic Route
Encapsulation (GRE) over IP Security (IPsec).
This design guide is part of an ongoing series that addresses VPN solutions, using the latest VPN
technologies from Cisco, and based on practical design principles that have been tested to scale....
The other routing protocols have been proposed in WSN
to improve QoS other restrictions such as the delay.
The problem here is that the complexity of the routing protocol significantly increased with
integration of more than one QoS parameter. Indeed, define a QoS route meets
two or more countries not limited correlation (eg, delay, and bandwidth) is an NP-
complete problem (Mellouk et al, 2007), because many limitations optimal path
problem can not be solved in polynomial time.
Huaqun Guo has introduced the emerging areas of vehicular networks in the forms of Intra-Vehicle, Vehicleto-
Vehicle, and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure communications and edited this new book to reflect the advance
information technologies that shape the modern automobiles. These new technologies on automotive informatics
and communicative systems will enable a variety of applications for safety, traffic efficiency, driver
assistance, as well as infotainment to be incorporated into modern automobile designs...
Automation is closely related to the modern need for sustainable development in the 21st
century. One of the principles of sustainability is “Doing More with Less” which in other
words, is also one of the goals of automation. By replacing the routine part of human
labor with the use of machines, automation not only increases productivity and the
quality of products beyond what can be achieved by humans but also frees space, time
and energy for humans to deal with the new, non-routine challenge of developing
innovative and more advanced technologies....
Soft tissues and exudates are best evaluated using contrast medium, therefore the best
imaging technique is contrast CT-scan. The soft tissues, spaces and exudates appear
radioopaque on contrast CT scans. Moreover, CT scan is cheaper, readily available and has
no electromagnetic effects on patients with metallic implants compared to MRI and most
patients do not react to the contrast medium (Gadolinium) which is injected into the body
via intravenous route before the scan.
The justiﬁcation for choosing this typing scheme is scalability. In other sys-
tems, such as one ﬁnds for example in the Java Distributed Event Speciﬁca-
tion [SunMicrosystems 1998] andCORBANotiﬁcation Service [ObjectManage-
ment Group 1998b], a notiﬁcation is a value of some named, explicit notiﬁcation
type. This implies a global authority formanaging and verifying the type space,
something which is clearly not feasible at an Internet scale. On the other hand,
we deﬁne a restricted set of attribute types from which to construct (arbitrary)
ATM Switching with Non-Blocking Single-Queueing Networks
A large class of ATM switches is represented by those architectures using a non-blocking interconnection network. In principle a non-blocking interconnection network is a crossbar structure that guarantees absence of switching conﬂicts (internal conﬂicts) between cells addressing different switch outlets.
With the proliferation of Web and multimedia services,
and virtual private networks (VPNs) connecting corporate
sites, more versatile Internet routing protocols have become
critical. Current Internet packet forwarding is based
on the destination address. Simple routing algorithms that
determine forwarding paths based on the minimum number
of hops or delay to a specified destination are no longer
sufficient. The need to support diverse traffic types and
applications with quality demands (see Figure 1) imposes
new requirements on routing in the (now commercial) Internet.
The olive is one of the most ancient cultivated fruit trees. Olive cultivation has a very long
history which started from the Third Millennium BC (Loukas & Krimbas, 1983) in the
Eastern region of the Mediterranean sea and spread later around the basin following land
and maritime routes to Italy, Spain, North Africa and France. Nowadays there are about 805
million of olive trees, 98% of which are grown in the Mediterranean countries (Tsitsipis et
al., 2009). The foremost consuming countries are also the main olive oil producers.
Identify the role of the Network Layer, as it describes communication from one end device to another end device Examine the most common Network Layer protocol, Internet Protocol (IP), and its features for providing connectionless and best-effort service Understand the principles used to guide the division or grouping of devices into networks Understand the hierarchical addressing of devices and how this allows communication between networks Understand the fundamentals of routes, next hop addresses and packet forwarding to a destination network