How to prepare for IELTS – Speaking
Details of the Speaking Test
Structure of the test
The speaking test is the last test you do on the test day. You will be given a time slot between about 2pm and 6.30pm. There are three tasks or parts to the test which takes the form of an interview lasting between 11 & 14 minutes: Part 1 Introduction & Interview (4-5 minutes) Part 2 Individual long turn (3-4 minutes) Part 3 Two-way discussion (4-5 minutes) The tasks test your ability to perform the following functions in English....
No one ever said that mastering the art of presentation was easy. That’s true.
Others have said good presenters are natural presenters. That’s not true.
A simple aim for this short guide to mastering the art of presentation is to prove this point. Everyone can
present with flair, style and success. Everyone can be effective. Yes, it requires an understanding of good
presenting practice and some adherence to guidelines…although these are not rigid rules. Good presenting
will come more naturally to you with time and experience.
We address the issue of on-line detection of communication problems in spoken dialogue systems. The usefulness is investigated of the sequence of system question types and the word graphs corresponding to the respective user utterances. By applying both ruleinduction and memory-based learning techniques to data obtained with a Dutch train time-table information system, the current paper demonstrates that the aforementioned features indeed lead to a method for problem detection that performs signiﬁcantly above baseline.
We present an approach of expanding parallel corpora for machine translation. By utilizing Semantic role labeling (SRL) on one side of the language pair, we extract SRL substitution rules from existing parallel corpus. The rules are then used for generating new sentence pairs. An SVM classiﬁer is built to ﬁlter the generated sentence pairs. The ﬁltered corpus is used for training phrase-based translation models, which can be used directly in translation tasks or combined with baseline models. ...
This paper describes a novel approach to generate potential foreign-accented phonetic transcriptions using phonological rewrite rules. For each pair of a native language (Li) and a target language (L2), a set of postlexical rules is designed to transform canonical phonetic dictionaries of L2 into adapted dictionaries for native Li speakers. Some general considerations on the design of such a rule-based system are presented.
This paper presents a method for learning phonological rules from sample pairs of underlying and surface forms, without negative evidence. The learned rules are represented as finite state transducers that accept underlying forms as input and generate surface forms as output. The algorithm for learning them is an extension of the OSTIA algorithm for learning general subsequential finite state transducers. Although OSTIA is capable of learning arbitrary s.-f.s.
After studying this chapter students will be able to: Explain how rules are used to facilitate communication, explain the role of protocols and standards organizations in facilitating interoperability in network communications, explain how devices on a LAN access resources in a small to medium-sized business network.
``Non-English Speaker'' means any party or witness who
cannot readily understand or communicate in spoken English
and who consequently cannot equally participate in or benefit
from the proceedings unless an interpreter is available to assist
him or her.
Essentials of Statistics for the Social and Behavioral Sciences distills the overwhelming amount of material covered in introductory statistics courses into a handy, practical resource for students and professionals. This accessible guide covers basic to advanced concepts in a clear, concrete, and readable style.
Essentials of Statistics for the Social and Behavioral Sciences guides you to a better understanding of basic concepts of statistical methods. Numerous practical tips are presented for selecting appropriate statistical procedures.
Medical loss ratio likely to lead to rebates: This year, health insurers must either meet the new
minimum loss ratio requirements by spending at least 80 percent of premiums on care and
quality improvement or offer customers rebates in 2012. Already, 75 million Americans in plans
covered by this rule are benefiting from insurers’ efforts to lower administrative costs and
increase the value of their coverage. We estimate, in the small group market, one million
enrollees could receive rebates averaging $312 per enrollee.
The following pages are devoted to a statistical analysis of
the principal factors affecting credit risk. The information
on which the study is based was obtained from a sample of
2,765 applications of persons to whom loans were granted.
The data, secured through the cooperation of 21 large banks
operating personal loan departments in 16 cities situated in
ii states,1 are presented in a series of tables giving the distri-
butions of good and of bad loans according to the several risk
In hierarchical phrase-based SMT systems, statistical models are integrated to guide the hierarchical rule selection for better translation performance. Previous work mainly focused on the selection of either the source side of a hierarchical rule or the target side of a hierarchical rule rather than considering both of them simultaneously. This paper presents a joint model to predict the selection of hierarchical rules.
This paper presents an algorithm for the compilation of regular formalisms with rule features into finite-state automata. Rule features are incorporated into the right context of rules. This general notion can also be applied to other algorithms which compile regular rewrite rules into automata.
According to Dr. Goldratt, synchronous manufacturing refers to the entire production process working together in harmony to achieve the goals of the firm. Synchronous manufacturing logic attempts to coordinate all resources so that they work together and are in harmony or are "synchronized." The goal is on total system performance, not on localized measures such as labor or machine utilization.
Statistics and mathematics underlie the theories of finance. Probability Theory and various distribution types are important to understanding finance. Risk management, for instance, depends on tools such as variance, standard deviation, correlation, and regression analysis. Financial analysis methods such as present values and valuing streams of payments are fundamental to understanding the time value of money and have been in practice for centuries.
This paper presents an effective approach to discard most entries of the rule table for statistical machine translation. The rule table is ﬁltered by monolingual key phrases, which are extracted from source text using a technique based on term extraction. Experiments show that 78% of the rule table is reduced without worsening translation performance. In most cases, our approach results in measurable improvements in BLEU score. that a source phrase is either a ﬂat phrase consists of words, or a hierarchical phrase consists of both words and variables. ...
In this paper, we present a novel approach to integrate speech recognition and rulebased machine translation by lattice parsing. The presented approach is hybrid in two senses. First, it combines structural and statistical methods for language modeling task. Second, it employs a chart parser which utilizes manually created syntax rules in addition to scores obtained after statistical processing during speech recognition. The employed chart parser is a uniﬁcation-based active chart parser. It can parse word graphs by using a mixed strategy instead of being bottom-up or top-down only.
To present the input information the basic semantic units of four types are proposed:"object", "parameter", "function" and "constant". For the syntactic structure representation the system of syntactic components is used that combines the properties of the dependency and constituent systems: the syntactic components corresponding to wordforms and exocentric constituents are introduced and two basic subordinate relations .
This chapter describes how queries are optimized. It starts off with statistics used for query optimization, and outlines how to use these statistics to estimate selectivities and query result sizes used for cost estimation. Equivalence rules are covered next, followed by a description of a query optimization algorithm modeled after the classic System R optimization algorithm, and coverage of nested subquery optimization.
After reading this chapter, you will be able to answer the following questions: What is consideration? What are the rules regarding consideration? What is promissory estoppel, and when can it be used? What is an illusory promise? What is the difference between a liquidated debt and an unliquidated debt? What is an accord and satisfaction?