Rules are presented

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  • How to prepare for IELTS – Speaking Details of the Speaking Test Structure of the test The speaking test is the last test you do on the test day. You will be given a time slot between about 2pm and 6.30pm. There are three tasks or parts to the test which takes the form of an interview lasting between 11 & 14 minutes: Part 1 Introduction & Interview (4-5 minutes) Part 2 Individual long turn (3-4 minutes) Part 3 Two-way discussion (4-5 minutes) The tasks test your ability to perform the following functions in English....

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  • No one ever said that mastering the art of presentation was easy. That’s true. Others have said good presenters are natural presenters. That’s not true. A simple aim for this short guide to mastering the art of presentation is to prove this point. Everyone can present with flair, style and success. Everyone can be effective. Yes, it requires an understanding of good presenting practice and some adherence to guidelines…although these are not rigid rules. Good presenting will come more naturally to you with time and experience.

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  • We present an approach of expanding parallel corpora for machine translation. By utilizing Semantic role labeling (SRL) on one side of the language pair, we extract SRL substitution rules from existing parallel corpus. The rules are then used for generating new sentence pairs. An SVM classifier is built to filter the generated sentence pairs. The filtered corpus is used for training phrase-based translation models, which can be used directly in translation tasks or combined with baseline models. ...

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  • We address the issue of on-line detection of communication problems in spoken dialogue systems. The usefulness is investigated of the sequence of system question types and the word graphs corresponding to the respective user utterances. By applying both ruleinduction and memory-based learning techniques to data obtained with a Dutch train time-table information system, the current paper demonstrates that the aforementioned features indeed lead to a method for problem detection that performs significantly above baseline.

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  • This paper describes a novel approach to generate potential foreign-accented phonetic transcriptions using phonological rewrite rules. For each pair of a native language (Li) and a target language (L2), a set of postlexical rules is designed to transform canonical phonetic dictionaries of L2 into adapted dictionaries for native Li speakers. Some general considerations on the design of such a rule-based system are presented.

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  • This paper presents a method for learning phonological rules from sample pairs of underlying and surface forms, without negative evidence. The learned rules are represented as finite state transducers that accept underlying forms as input and generate surface forms as output. The algorithm for learning them is an extension of the OSTIA algorithm for learning general subsequential finite state transducers. Although OSTIA is capable of learning arbitrary s.-f.s.

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  • After studying this chapter students will be able to: Explain how rules are used to facilitate communication, explain the role of protocols and standards organizations in facilitating interoperability in network communications, explain how devices on a LAN access resources in a small to medium-sized business network.

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  • ``Non-English Speaker'' means any party or witness who cannot readily understand or communicate in spoken English and who consequently cannot equally participate in or benefit from the proceedings unless an interpreter is available to assist him or her.

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  • Essentials of Statistics for the Social and Behavioral Sciences distills the overwhelming amount of material covered in introductory statistics courses into a handy, practical resource for students and professionals. This accessible guide covers basic to advanced concepts in a clear, concrete, and readable style. Essentials of Statistics for the Social and Behavioral Sciences guides you to a better understanding of basic concepts of statistical methods. Numerous practical tips are presented for selecting appropriate statistical procedures.

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  • Medical loss ratio likely to lead to rebates: This year, health insurers must either meet the new minimum loss ratio requirements by spending at least 80 percent of premiums on care and quality improvement or offer customers rebates in 2012. Already, 75 million Americans in plans covered by this rule are benefiting from insurers’ efforts to lower administrative costs and increase the value of their coverage. We estimate, in the small group market, one million enrollees could receive rebates averaging $312 per enrollee.

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  • The following pages are devoted to a statistical analysis of the principal factors affecting credit risk. The information on which the study is based was obtained from a sample of 2,765 applications of persons to whom loans were granted. The data, secured through the cooperation of 21 large banks operating personal loan departments in 16 cities situated in ii states,1 are presented in a series of tables giving the distri- butions of good and of bad loans according to the several risk factors selected.

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  • In hierarchical phrase-based SMT systems, statistical models are integrated to guide the hierarchical rule selection for better translation performance. Previous work mainly focused on the selection of either the source side of a hierarchical rule or the target side of a hierarchical rule rather than considering both of them simultaneously. This paper presents a joint model to predict the selection of hierarchical rules.

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  • This paper presents an algorithm for the compilation of regular formalisms with rule features into finite-state automata. Rule features are incorporated into the right context of rules. This general notion can also be applied to other algorithms which compile regular rewrite rules into automata.

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  • This paper presents an effective approach to discard most entries of the rule table for statistical machine translation. The rule table is filtered by monolingual key phrases, which are extracted from source text using a technique based on term extraction. Experiments show that 78% of the rule table is reduced without worsening translation performance. In most cases, our approach results in measurable improvements in BLEU score. that a source phrase is either a flat phrase consists of words, or a hierarchical phrase consists of both words and variables. ...

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  • In this paper, we present a novel approach to integrate speech recognition and rulebased machine translation by lattice parsing. The presented approach is hybrid in two senses. First, it combines structural and statistical methods for language modeling task. Second, it employs a chart parser which utilizes manually created syntax rules in addition to scores obtained after statistical processing during speech recognition. The employed chart parser is a unification-based active chart parser. It can parse word graphs by using a mixed strategy instead of being bottom-up or top-down only.

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  • To present the input information the basic semantic units of four types are proposed:"object", "parameter", "function" and "constant". For the syntactic structure representation the system of syntactic components is used that combines the properties of the dependency and constituent systems: the syntactic components corresponding to wordforms and exocentric constituents are introduced and two basic subordinate relations .

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  • Languages are natural forms of communication; children quickly learn to communicate using their native language, and soon master the main rules of grammar or syntax without being taught. Indeed, we cannot communicate efficiently if we do not master the essential principles of grammar or syntax. If we imagine language as a big highway, the road and the cars are the words, but the grammar is the road signs and markings that tell the cars and lorries where to go and how to drive. Without roadsigns, a big highway would quickly descend into total confusion....

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  • Gestures are reflections of every speaker's individual personality What's right for one speaker may not be right for another; however, the following six rules apply to anyone who seeks to become a dynamic effective speaker.

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