Xem 1-15 trên 15 kết quả Salt decreases
  • Abstract: The impact of salinity on three arboreal mangrove plants, Sonneratia apetala (Sa), S. caseolaris (Sc) and Rhizophora stylosa (Rs), was studied. The three mangrove species were treated with different salinity levels over a three-month period. The response and adaptation of these three mangrove species to salinity were shown to be different. Net photosynthesis rate, stomata conductance and transpiration rate of leaves decreased and soluble sugar content in leaves increased, with salt concentration in all three mangrove species.

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  • Populations in developing countries are growing so quickly that the land and water are unable to sustain them. In most developing countries, prime farmland and fresh water are already fully utilized. Although irrigation can be employed to bring land in arid areas into production, it often leads to salinization. In some countries, the amount of newly irrigated land is equalled by salinized irrigated land going out of production. Moreover, irrigation water is often drawn from river basins or aquifers shared by several countries, and friction over its use is common....

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  • The three mangrove species were treated with different salinity levels over a three-month period. The response and adaptation of these three mangrove species to salinity were shown to be different. Net photosynthesis rate, stomata conductance and transpiration rate of leaves decreased and soluble sugar content in leaves increased, with salt concentration in all three mangrove species. The malondial dehyde (MDA) content in stems and leaves of Sa and Sc

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  • Until the early 1990’s latex production has been the main objective for rubberwood cultivation in Thailand. In 1989 the Thai government established a national natural forests logging ban. This law raised an immediate demand for construction and furniture wood in Thailand. Previously, the rubberwood trunks left over after the latex production, were either used as firewood at the plantation site or in charcoal production. Rubberwood offers qualities to ease off the demand for natural tropical forest trees and this way helps to decrease the pressure on illegal logging.

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  • Regioregular polythiophene-based conductive copolymers with highly crystalline nanostructures are shown to hold considerable promise as the active layer in volatile organic compound (VOC) chemresistor sensors. While the regioregular polythiophene polymer chain provides a charge conduction path, its chemical sensing selectivity and sensitivity can be altered either by incorporating a second polymer to form a block copolymer or by making a random copolymer of polythiophene with different alkyl side chains.

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  • We used mill-level production and pollution data to estimate (1) the effect of China’s system of pollution control levies on three environmental effluents, and then (2) examined further the effect of this system of levies on the technical efficiency of mill-level production. Our results show that the pollution levies worked for those larger establishments that were the main targets of reform policies in this period.

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  • Tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TCPP) is an additive flame retardant. It is used extensively in rigid and flexible polyurethane foam. TCPP is also used in thermoset and thermoplastic materials and in textile finishes. Annual U.S. production/import volume was 10-50 million pounds for the reporting years 1990, 1994, 1998 and 2002 (U.S. EPA, 2002). An increased use of TCPP in Europe has been linked to a decreased use of tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP). Studies in Sweden found high levels of TCPP in indoor environments (Marklund et al., 2005).

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  • Likewise, there are some significant variances in contractors’ expectations for growth in various market segments this year. For example, contractors in the Southwest and Northwest are more optimistic about the outlook for highway construction this year, with 32 percent of contractors expecting the market to increase in the Southwest, versus 31 percent expecting a decrease while 31 percent of contractors in the Northeast expect an increase and 30 percent a decrease, for a net positive of 1 percent for each region.

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  • Photosynthesis of micro algae is often inhibited by salt stress (Kirst, 1990). Such an inhibition may be explained by a decrease in PSII activity. Indeed, in the green microalgae, salt stress inhibits PSII activity in Dunaliella tertiolecta and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that is associated with a state-2 transition (Gilmour et al., 1985, Endo et al., 1995). In the cyanobacteria, it has been suggested that the decreased PSII activity in salt-stressed cells is associated with the state-2 transition (Schubert et al., 1993; Schubert and Hagemann, 1990).

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  • Prior to the availability of refrigeration, foods, particularly fish and meat, were preserved by salting, marinating or pickling. Through a decrease in water activity, meat and fish were protected against microbial spoilage and other deteriorative processes. It was the process of treating meat with rock salt that led to modern curing practices (Cassens 1990). Thus, meat curing, historically defined as the addition of salt (sodium chloride) to meat, is now referred to as the intentional addition of nitrite and salt to meat.

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  • There are likely several reasons for the long-termluminance decrease. First, analog film and its digital successor have increased their dynamic range, allowing for darker darks in a given image. Second, and also due to filmstock, studio-era films needed to be shot under very bright lights, whereas for contemporary films that is no longer necessary (Salt 2009).

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  • Table 46-3 Causes of Hypokalemia I. Decreased intake A. Starvation B. Clay ingestion II. Redistribution into cells A. Acid-base 1. Metabolic alkalosis B. Hormonal 1. Insulin 2. β2-Adrenergic agonists (endogenous or exogenous) 3. α-Adrenergic antagonists C. Anabolic state 1. Vitamin B12 or folic acid (red blood cell production) 2. Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (white blood cell production) 3. Total parenteral nutrition D. Other 1. Pseudohypokalemia 2. Hypothermia 3. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis 4. Barium toxicity III. Increased loss A.

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  • Definitions Disturbances of the sense of taste may be categorized as total ageusia, total absence of gustatory function or inability to detect the qualities of sweet, salt, bitter, or sour; partial ageusia, ability to detect some but not all of the qualitative gustatory sensations; specific ageusia, inability to detect the taste quality of certain substances; total hypogeusia, decreased sensitivity to all tastants; partial hypogeusia, decreased sensitivity to some tastants; and dysgeusia or phantogeusia, distortion in the perception of a tastant, i.e.

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  • The solubility of a partially soluble salt is decreased when a common ion is added. Consider the equilibrium established when acetic acid, HC2H3O2, is added to water. At equilibrium H+ and C2H3O2- are constantly moving into and out of solution, but the concentrations of ions is constant and equal. If a common ion is added, e.g. C2H3O2- from NaC2H3O2 (which is a strong electrolyte) then [C2H3O2-] increases and the system is no longer at equilibrium. So, [H+] must decrease.

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  • The carbon dioxide molecule becomes cluster to minimize the free energy; as a result pore nucleation is created. These pores cause the significant expansion of polymeric volume and decrease in polymeric density. A three- dimensional porous structure (scaffolds) is formed after completion of foaming process. The porosity of the scaffolds is controlled by the use of porogens like sugar, salts and wax (Ikada, 2006).

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