The growth of the Internet, which I have been involved in, and the growth of mobile
telephone services, which NTT DoCoMo has been a leader in, have been peculiarly interlinked
and at the same time separate. The Internet is a lab experiment that broke free, and
finds itself in a world of its own contriving, which it often does not understand. The mobile
telephone world was developed for commercial purposes, and is in many respects the son of
its father, the wired telephone system.
This is a substantially new and different edition of Systems Analysis and Design.
We hope that the new materials bring it up to date and that we’ve
kept the best of the old. It has been written for people studying systems
analysis and design or who are already working in systems teams. People
who are involved in the development of new systems or the development of
new systems analysts, or both, have written it.
It is intended to be a practical book, easy to read and easy to use. It follows
the same structure as the previous edition and has new and updated
material in it. There are...
An HVAC designer is almost certain to be faced with the need to write
reports. The ability to produce an organized, understandable, and succinct
report will go far toward establishing credibility with both superiors
Writing a good report requires the same attributes needed for success
in any other area: understanding of basic principles, planning and
organization, and careful investigation.
Any value that you'll run across as an engineer will either be unitless or, more commonly, will
have specific types of units attached to it. In order to solve a problem effectively, all the types of
units should be consistent with each other, or should be in the same system. A system of units
defines each of the basic unit types with respect to some measurement that can be easily
duplicated, so that for example 5 ft. is the same length in Australia as it is in the United States.
There are five commonly-used base unit types or dimensions that one might encounter (shown
In a normal alternating current power system, the voltage varies sinusoidally at a specific frequency, usually 50 or 60 hertz. When a linear electrical load is connected to the system, it draws a sinusoidal current at the same frequency as the voltage (though usually not in phase with the voltage).
When a non-linear load, such as a rectifier, is connected to the system, it draws a current that is not necessarily sinusoidal. The current waveform can become quite complex, depending on the type of load and its interaction with other components of the system.
This book is designed for a one-semester course on Nano- and
Microelectromechanical Systems or Nano- and Microengineering. A typical
background needed includes calculus, electromagnetics, and physics. The
purpose of this book is to bring together in one place the various methods,
techniques, and technologies that students and engineers need in solving a
wide array of engineering problems in formulation, modeling, analysis,
design, and optimization of high-performance microelectromechanical and
nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS).
The most fundamental point to understand about the C++ I/O system is that it operates on streams. A stream is an abstraction that either produces or consumes information. A stream is linked to a physical device by the C++ I/O system. All streams behave in the same manner, even if the actual physical devices they are linked to differ. Because all streams act the same, the same I/O functions and operators can operate on virtually any type of device. For example, the same method that you use to write to the screen can be used to write to a disk...
This publication includes two Æ (architectural engineering) handbooks,
this one dealing with the design of mechanical systems and related
components, the other doing the same with structural systems. Each volume
also contains an interactive CD-ROM of its algebraic formulas that
enables each equation to be solved quickly and accurately by computer
In this demo, we present SciSumm, an interactive multi-document summarization system for scientiﬁc articles. The document collection to be summarized is a list of papers cited together within the same source article, otherwise known as a co-citation. At the heart of the approach is a topic based clustering of fragments extracted from each article based on queries generated from the context surrounding the co-cited list of papers.
In this paper we examine how the differences in modelling between different data driven systems performing the same NLP task can be exploited to yield a higher accuracy than the best individual system. We do this by means of an experiment involving the task of morpho-syntactic wordclass tagging. Four well-known tagger generators (Hidden Markov Model, Memory-Based, Transformation Rules and Maximum Entropy) are trained on the same corpus data. After comparison, their outputs are combined using several voting strategies and second stage classifiers. ...
The LoopStar 800 SONET Access System enables service providers to cost effectively deploy a
fiber-based solution to address locations where copper-based M13 multiplexers are typically
deployed. While providing an effective alternative to copper-based M13s, the LoopStar 800 can
deliver other advanced services simultaneously from the same system. As a result, the LoopStar
800 provides increased network visibility through its SONET management features and supports
other services without significantly increasing the per port cost over traditional M13 multiplexers....
When station has frame, it sends
Station listens (for max round trip time)plus small increment
If ACK, fine. If not, retransmit
If no ACK after repeated transmissions, give up
Frame check sequence (as in HDLC)
If frame OK and address matches receiver, send ACK
Frame may be damaged by noise or by another station transmitting at the same time (collision)
Any overlap of frames causes collision
Max utilization 18%
Machine translation of locative prepositions is not straightforward, even between closely related languages. This paper discusses a system of translation of locative prepositions between English and French. The system is based on the premises that English and French do not always conceptualize objects in the same way, and that this accounts for the major differences in the ways that locative prepositions are used in these languages.
Do natural language database systems still ,~lovide a valuable environment for further work on n~,tural language processing? Are there other systems which provide the same hard environment :for testing, but allow us to explore more interesting natural language questions? In order to answer , o to the first question and yes to the second (the position taken by our panel's chair}, there must be an interesting language problem which is more naturally studied in some other system than in the database system. ...
This paper describes a multi-lingual phrase-based Statistical Machine Translation system accessible by means of a Web page. The user can issue translation requests from Arabic, Chinese or Spanish into English. The same phrase-based statistical technology is employed to realize the three supported language-pairs. New language-pairs can be easily added to the demonstrator. The Web-based interface allows the use of the translation system to any computer connected to the Internet.
In the past the evaluation of machine translation systems has focused on single system evaluations because there were only few systems available. But now there are several commercial systems for the same language pair. This requires new methods of comparative evaluation. In the paper we propose a black-box method for comparing the lexical coverage of MT systems. The method is based on lists of words from different frequency classes. It is shown how these word lists can be compiled and used for testing. We also present the results of using our method on 6 MT systems that translate...
Money is an asset that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services or repayment of debt. Not the same as wealth or income, money is a component of wealth that is held in a readily- spend able form money is made up of. In this chapter will introduce the money and the payment system, inviting you refer.
Given several systems’ automatic translations of the same sentence, we show how to combine them into a confusion network, whose various paths represent composite translations that could be considered in a subsequent rescoring step. We build our confusion networks using the method of Rosti et al. (2007), but, instead of forming alignments using the tercom script (Snover et al., 2006), we create alignments that minimize invWER (Leusch et al., 2003), a form of edit distance that permits properly nested block movements of substrings. ...
A powerful grammar w r i t i n g system has been developed. Thts grammar w r t t t n g system ts c a l l e d GRADE (GRAmmar D E s c r i b e r ) . GRADE allows a grammar writer to write grammars I n c l u d i n g analysts, t r a n s f e r , and g e n e r a t i o n using t h e same e x p r e s s i o n ....
I should like to raise some issues concerning the conversion from a traditional Marhine-Readable Dictionary (MRD) on tape to a Lexical Data Base (LDB), in order to highlight some important consequences for computational linguistics which can follow from this transition. The enormous potentialities of the information implicitly stored in a standard printed dictionary or a MRD can only be evidenced and made explicit when the same data are given a new logical structure in a data base model, and exploited by appropriate software. ...