Sanitation systems

Xem 1-20 trên 31 kết quả Sanitation systems
  • Water supply and sanitation are amongst the most basic requirements of life. For the past 50 to 150 years people living in Europe, America and a few capital cities elsewhere around the globe have come to take for granted the provision of a virtually limitless supply of clean, safe water and the seemingly effortless removal of all human wastes ‘out of sight and out of mind’.

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  • .Risk Management of Water Supply and Sanitation Systems .NATO Science for Peace and Security Series This Series presents the results of scientific meetings supported under the NATO Programme: Science for Peace and Security (SPS). The NATO SPS Programme supports meetings in the following Key Priority areas: (1) Defence Against Terrorism; (2) Countering other Threats to Security and (3) NATO, Partner and Mediterranean Dialogue Country Priorities. The types of meeting supported are generally "Advanced Study Institutes" and "Advanced Research Workshops".

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  • The need for, and methods to conduct, media sanitization should be identified and developed before arriving at the system disposal phase in the system life cycle. At the start of system development, when the initial system security plan is developed (see NIST SP 800-18, Revision 1, Guide for Developing Security Plans for Information Technology Systems), media sanitization controls are developed, documented, and deployed. One of the key decisions that will affect the ability to conduct sanitization is choosing what media are going to be used with the system.

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  • Access to safe drinking water and sanitation is a basic necessity. However, such access is highly variable around the world and in particular in Africa, Asia and South America. Much progress still remains to be made in infrastructure improvements and poverty reduction. A recent World Bank report, for example, noted that more than 100 million people in the Latin American region alone lack access to potable water and adequate sanitation systems. Compounding the issue of water availability is contamination of water supplies and the lack of wastewater treatment facilities.

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  • Each year more than 200 million people are affected by floods, tropical storms, droughts, earthquakes, and also operational failures, wars, terrorism, vandalism, and accidents involving hazardous materials. These are part of the wide variety of events that cause death, injury, and significant economic losses for the countries affected. As demonstrated by recent events, natural and manmade hazards can affect anyone in anyplace.

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  • It is important to note that the requirements for sustainability condi- tions vary by subsection because they are inherently different. In par- ticular, these requirements to create sustainability may be more difficult to achieve in practice in water and sanitation, in drainage, and in the transportation subprojects than they are in building schools or clinics.

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  • Several factors should be considered along with the security categorization of the system confidentiality when making sanitization decisions. The cost versus benefit of a media sanitization process should be understood prior to a final decision. For instance, it may not be cost-effective to degauss inexpensive media such as diskettes. Even though clear or purge may be the recommended solution, it may be more cost-effective (considering training, tracking, and validation, etc) to destroy media rather than use one of the other options.

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  • So, for example, virtually all of the health conditions identified in the MDGs correlate with income poverty. But the solution to good health is not simply poverty reduction – full stop. Understanding the causal link is key.

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  • Sources of groundwater contamination associated with human activities are widespread and include diffuse as well as point source pollution like land application of animal wastes and agrochemicals in agriculture, disposal practices of human excreta and wastes such as leaking sewers or sanitation systems, leakage of waste disposal sites, landfills, underground storage tanks, pipelines and pollution due to both poor practices and accidental spills in mining, industry, traffic, health care facilities and military sites. ...

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  • Cherry Creek Reservoir, Colorado. Representatives from the county, local communities, and water and sanitation districts surrounding the reservoir formed a trading authority to help address phosphorus pollution from nonpoint sources, After authority members achieve a SO-percent reduction of annusl phosphorus loadings from nonpoint sources, they may make excess reductions available to sewage treatment plants in the form of a pollution credit. Trading will likely be delayed because anticipated land...

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  • Commercial hatcheries concentrate their efforts on maximum hatching of fertile eggs and on marketing viable chicks adapted to customer requirements. Environmental conditions for incubation are controlled automatically and are safeguarded by supplementary mechanisms activated in case of unexpected malfunction or disruption of energy sources. High standards of sanitation are essential for the production of high-quality chicks. Generally, economic interests of industrial hatcheries favour the best care of marketable chicks, as this has an influence on the birds’ future performance.

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  • Following this, i switch modes to analyze the sample prototypes that i helped design to test these theoretical concepts. Chapter 6 introduces the applications section of this thesis, while Chapters 7 and 8 detail Social Network Fragments and SecureId, including the conceptual theory, the algorithms and the design approach. Chapter 7 reflects on the design and concepts behind Social Network Fragments, a visualization tool that i built in collaboration with Jeff Potter.

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  • Water contamination and the degradation and destruction of aquatic ecosystems is a problem of truly global dimensions and impedes sustainable development in poor countries because there is no clean water; there are waterborne diseases; and there is pollution and the lack of sanitation. This chapter provides knowledge of water pollution and its prevention.

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  • The water problems in Asia’s cities are similar. These include sources and uses of raw water, the large propor-tion of water loss in distribution networks, intermittent supply, and the quality of tap water. In some cities, the excessive use of groundwater resources has caused serious environmental problems, including rapid deple-tion of groundwater, deterioration of water quality, and land subsidence.

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  • The objective of this study is to assist public authorities to identify and address the future challenges of urban water supply, sanitation, and flood management in cities. In order to do that, this report uses the conceptual framework of Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM) as a holistic set of planning and management tools incorporating all components of the urban water cycle to help develop efficient and flexible urban water systems in the future. The future of water in African cities: why waste water? argues that a new approach to urban water management is needed in Africa.

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  • Reducing Poverty and Improving the Environment and Citizen Health in Brazil Favelas (slums) are a primary feature of urban development in Brazil. These informal settlements often occupy environmentally precarious areas such as steep hillsides and riverbanks, and usually lack key infrastructure, in particular sanitation and sewerage systems. This has resulted in increased rates of disease and mortality. Brazil has, however, made significant steps in addressing the problems which beset the favelas.

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  • The need to train those who will be responsible for the O&M is an important institutional issue. Sometimes those responsible may be in the community, sometimes they may be a private contractor, or sometimes they may be in the ministry. User training is needed, par- ticularly in water supply and sanitation. Sanitation education has not always been provided and is very important. If the operator is going to be the sectoral agency, sometimes basic budgetary reforms need to be addressed.

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  • In this paper we are particularly interested in how public infrastructure influences child health. Access to sanitary and health care infrastructure is another likely determinant of child health. There is evidence that increasing the provision of basic health services (birth services, availability of drugs, immunizations) improves considerable child health (Thomas et al 1996 and Lavy et al 1996). Wolfe and Behrman (1982) find evidence that access to refrigeration and good quality sewage systems positively influence child health.

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  • When storage media are transferred, become obsolete, or are no longer usable or required by an information system, it is important to ensure that residual magnetic, optical, electrical, or other representation of data that has been deleted is not easily recoverable. Sanitization refers to the general process of removing data from storage media, such that there is reasonable assurance that the data may not be easily retrieved and reconstructed.

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  • The information security concern regarding information disposal and media sanitization resides not in the media but in the recorded information. The issue of media disposal and sanitization is driven by the information placed intentionally or unintentionally on the media. With the advanced features of today’s operating systems, electronic media used on a system should be assumed to contain information commensurate with the security categorization of the system’s confidentiality.

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