Satellite observations

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  • This report is the final product of a Committee on Earth Studies (CES) examination of technical and programmatic issues related to the integration of research and operational Earth observation satellite systems in the support of climate research (see Appendix A for the statement of task).

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  • Reliable and accurate positioning and navigation is critical for a diverse set of emerging applications calling for advanced signal-processing techniques. This book provides an overview of some of the most recent research results in the field of signal processing for positioning and navigation, addressing many challenging open problems. The book stems from the European Network of Excellence in Wireless Communications NEWCOM++, in which I was privileged to be involved as both an external observer and a contributor.

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  • Satellite altimetry was developed in the 1960s soon after the flight of artificial satellites became a reality. From the vantage point in space, a radar altimeter is able to measure the shape of the sea surface globally and frequently. Such measurements have a wide range of applications to oceanography, geodesy, and geophysics. The results are often revolutionary. For example, in oceanography; it takes a ship weeks or months to cross the ocean making measurements while the ocean is constantly changing its circulation, temperature, and salinity.

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  • When seen from space, “Planet Earth” is a mix of clouds, with the majority (two thirds) of the total surface under ocean water with the remaining third of land forming what we call continents, with various degrees of increasing albedo from open water bodies, vegetation, bare soil, rocks, deserts, and snow/ice packs. In a very short time (relative to Earth's age), the modern human civilization has conquered its neighboring space with probes, satellites, and vehicles carrying humans for exploration.

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  • Today, space technology is used as an excellent instrument for Earth observation applications. Data is collected using satellites and other available platforms for remote sensing. Remote sensing data collection detects a wide range of electromagnetic energy which is emitting, transmitting, or reflecting from the Earth's surface. Appropriate detection systems are needed to implement further data processing. Space technology has been found to be a successful application for studying climate change, as current and past data can be dynamically compared.

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  • The Earth is the only planet in our solar system that supports life. The complex process of evolution occurred on Earth only because of some unique environmental conditions that were present: water, an oxygen-rich atmosphere, and a suitable surface temperature. Climate change refers to a statistically significant variation in either the mean state of the climate or in its variability, persisting for an extended period (typically decades or longer).

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  • The history of science shows many close connections between physics and astronomy. It is well known that a number of physical laws evolved from a base of astronomical observations. For example, Kepler observed and, later Newton derived, the laws of gravitation while studying the motion of planets and their satellites. The existence of thermonuclear energy was solidly established when it explained the energy balance of the Sun and stars.

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  • The purpose of this monograph is to formulate a quantitative and self-consistent theoretical approach to wave–particle interactions occurring in space plasmas, and present a logical development of the subject. In the Earth’s magnetosphere, Nature has given us a plasma laboratory that is accessible to observations made by radio, magnetic and electric instruments on the ground, and a great variety of instruments aboard rockets and Earth-orbiting satellites. Spacecraft are making similar observations in the more distant solar system.

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  • Four hundred years ago, the Universe changed. Or, at least, our perception of it did, thanks to Galileo Galilei’s scrutiny of the night sky with a telescope. Within a couple of years, his observations of the Moon, phases of Venus and satellites of Jupiter shattered the old Ptolemaic model of our Solar System. To the church’s dismay, Earth assumed its rightful place as one of several planets orbiting the Sun (see page 28). Marking Galileo’s anniversary, the International Year of Astronomy seeks to remind us of the humbling nature of gazing at the heavens.

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  • Satellite Communication can be an effective strategy to meet this need in a technology-supported, cost-effective and time-efficient manner. This is evident from the observation of Geray et al. (2007) who conducted a study to understand the level of actual exposure and the types of young people exposed to a global media campaign to promote HIV prevention among 16- to 25-year-olds by MTV programme “Staying Alive,” in 2002.

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  • Real-time teleconsulting, diagnosis from a remote location and the transmission of clinical data and multimedia medical content are particularly needed when the access to medical services is difficult like in geographically dispersed locations (Healthware, 2005, p. 2). Satellites are best tool to meet these objectives, as observed by ISRO (2008), “Satellites can establish the connectivity between urban educational institutions with adequate infrastructure imparting quality education and the large number of rural and semi-urban educational institutions.

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  • An English-Japanese bi-directional machine translation system was connected to a keyboard conversation function on a workstation, and tested via a satellite link with users in Japan and Switzerland. The set-up is described, and some informal observations on the nature of the bilingual dialogues reported. particular we were struck by the amount of metadialogue, i.e. dialogue discussing the previous interchanges: since contributions to the conversation were being translated, this metadialogue posed certain problems which we think are of general interest. ...

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