Beyond TMT, we find no systematic increase in the importance of industry effects.
Instead, we observe that the ratio of industry to country effects follows a U-shape pattern
from the mid-1980s to the late-1990s, a cyclical pattern whereby global industry effects
become temporarily more important in relative and absolute terms around periods of stock
market distress, such as October 1987 and March 2000. We view this cyclical pattern as
further evidence that the recent increase in industry effects is temporary....
The projects that motivated initial development of many of the ideas in this book
were primarily large engineering projects in the energy sector: large-scale Arctic
pipelines in the far north of North America in the mid-1970s, BP’s North Sea
projects from the mid-1970s to the early 1980s, and a range of Canadian and US
energy projects in the early 1980s. In this period the initial focus was ‘the project’
in engineering and ...
Scales concisely show how a theoretical construct has been empirically measured. Their reliability and validity ratios give a notion of the quality of the scale. Since most scales are developed by the respective authors and are therefore in a first version, they can be used as a basis
Temperature Measurement of Fluids
Low Velocity Gas
Contact sensors Assume that a gas, with a temperature, T., flows in a tube with a flow-velocity below about 20 m/s, as shown in Figure 17.1(a) . In the tube there is a sheathed sensor, whose sensitive part, at temperature, TT , is placed in the sheath bottom. This case corresponds to a thermocouple with the measuring junction welded into the sheath bottom . Also let the temperature ofthe internal surface ofthe tube wall be TW , while the length to diameter ratio of the sensor sheath is assumed to be so large that...
Scales concisely show how a theoretical construct has been empirically measured. Their
reliability and validity ratios give a notion of the quality of the scale. Since most scales are
developed by the respective authors and are therefore in a first version, they can be used as a
basis for supplementation and further development.
Currently, the development of products at the nano- and microscale is being driven by economic
necessity in highly developed countries in order to improve the quality of life, and in recent years
to prevent the spread of global terrorism. Nanotechnology is seen as the next step in the industrial
revolution and, as such, requires manufacturing processes that will revolutionize the way small
products are made. The promises offered by nanotechnology will change the way we exist.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Research Article Existence of Periodic Solutions for a Delayed Ratio-Dependent Three-Species Predator-Prey Diffusion System on Time Scales
Virtually every branch of the sciences, engineering, economics, and related fields now discusses or refers to
chaos. James Gleick's 1987 book, Chaos: making a new science and a 1988 one-hour television program on
chaos aroused many people's curiosity and interest. There are now quite a few books on the subject. Anyone
writing yet another book, on any topic, inevitably goes through the routine of justifying it. My justification
consists of two reasons
The system-to-administrator ratio is commonly used as a rough metric to understand administrative
costs in high-scale services. With smaller, less automated services this ratio can be as low as
2:1, whereas on industry leading, highly automated services, we’ve seen ratios as high as 2,500:1.
Within Microsoft services, Autopilot  is often cited as the magic behind the success of the Windows
Live Search team in achieving high system-to-administrator ratios. While auto-administration
is important, the most important factor is actually the service itself.
In this chapter, we will examine the P/E and other ratios that scale a firm’s market valuation to a measure of firm value. These ratios will be used to determine the relative valuation of a common share. They are widely used in practice because in a single number, they provide the firm’s market valuation relative to some firm fundamental.
Thang đo trong nghiên cứu: Có bốn loại thang đo chính thức được sử dụng trong nghiên cứu tiếp thị: (1) Thang đo định danh (norminal scale) (2) Thang đo thứ tự (ordinal scale) (3) Thang đo quãng/khỏang cách (interval scale) (4) Thang đo tỉ lệ (ratio scale). Thang đo định danh và thang đo thứ tự được gọi là thang đo không metric hay thang đo định tính (qualitative scale); Thang đo tỉ lệ và khoảng cách được gọi là thang đo metric hay thang đo định lượng (quantitative scale). ...
This could be fortuitous at modest scales because oxygen is relatively costly (Consonni
and Larson 1994a). However, for the production of methanol from biomass,
the use of air increases the volume of inert (N
) gas that would have to be carried
through all the downstream reactors. Therefore, the use of oxygen thus improves
the economics of synthesis gas processing. Air-fired, directly heated gasifiers are
considered not to be suitable before methanol production.
This gasifier produces a CO
Benefit-cost ratios of intervention to control or prevent air pollution from household SFU
will depend on what benefits and costs are included in the analysis and how non-market
benefits and costs are valued. Health effects of air pollution are often a major concern
and motivation for intervention. Which health effects to include and how they are valued
are therefore an important consideration in an economic analysis. Large scale household
stove programs have also been motivated by natural resource considerations, for instance
in China in the 1980s.
With respect to equity mutual funds, the study further notes that funds are experiencing
diseconomies of scale in their expense ratios when their size exceeds $600 million to
Interestingly, the foregoing study does not even address the problem of "market impact costs"
which are clearly an even greater expense to mutual funds than are the more visible costs used in
the calculation of their...
Fresh tea shoots (one shoot and two or three young leaves) were extracted using microwave-assisted extraction method (MAE). Several factors such as ethanol concentrations (0-99.5o (volume percentage)), material: solvent ratio (1:4 to 1:12), extraction time, oven power were studied to optimise conditions at laboratory scale.
We present an analysis of bounded-energy low-tension maps between 2-spheres. By deriving sharp estimates for the ratio of length scales on which bubbles of opposite orientation develop, we show that we can establish a ‘quantization estimate’ which constrains the energy of the map to lie near to a discrete energy spectrum. One application is to the asymptotics of the harmonic map ﬂow; we ﬁnd uniform exponential convergence in time, in the case under consideration.
This paper develops theory missing in the sizeable literature that uses data envelopment
analysis to construct return : risk ratios for investment funds. It explores the production
possibility set of the investment funds to identify an appropriate form of returns to
scale. It discusses what risk and return measures can justiﬁably be combined and how
to deal with negative risks, and identiﬁes suitable sets of measures. It identiﬁes the
problems of failing to deal with diversiﬁcation and develops an iterative approximation
procedure to deal with it.
This analysis represents the scale of potential impacts on the economy and not
benefit/cost ratios. Specifically, economic impact studies do not account for some
of the social and environmental impacts that are included in benefit/cost studies,
though they do account for indirect and induced economic growth that is
typically not included in benefit/cost studies.
The social and environmental impacts that are not counted within the GDP
impact measure include, most notably, personal time savings and emissions
Feed Conversion Efficiency (FCE) can be defined as the volume of milk produced by the
cow per kilogram of feed consumed by the cow and acts as an accurate indicator of the
effectiveness of the feed ration. A fundamental aim of the dairy farmer is to maximise this
ratio. Optimising rumen function is the first step towards achieving a favourable FCE. The
passage and rumination of the feed ration can be determined by faecal consistency. Faecal
consistency can be rated on a scale of 1-5 with a score of 1 indicating watery faeces...