A substantially greater proportion of women with breast cancer are receiv-
ing chemotherapy and/or hormone therapy than before 1988.
Earlier symptomatic presentation and greater use of adjuvant therapy
since 1988 has had a marked impact, reducing mortality rates from breast
cancer, in addition to the specific contribution from the NHSBSP.
Although some have questioned the value of screening for breast cancer,
the scientific evidence demonstrates clearly that regular mammographic
screening between the ages of 50 and 70 years reduces mortality from
Biomarkers are the keystone of stratified medicine. Now, as for any new medical product,
the development of bioassays follows a pathway that begins with basic research and moves
toward preclinical and clinical stages. Although biomarkers can be identified in clinical
phases, the discovery of new biomarkers is often ground in knowledge generated by
academic basic research. A better understanding of disease mechanisms is crucial in this
The currently available treatment options for glomerular disorders are not optimal
since most of them either respond only partially or poorly so that relapse and
progression is often the rule. Inadequate understanding of the factors underlying the
development and progression of glomerular injury in various clinical scenarios is
primarily responsible for lack of ideal therapies. The section on immune system and
glomerulonephritis has three chapters which basically cover some of the actively
investigated areas. Tetsuhiro Tanaka et al.
Of course, there is some truth in this answer, and probably much more than “some”.
We are in the 21st century, and even animal experiments must be updated and
modernized. I am perfectly convinced that preclinical scientists (among whom I
proudly list myself) must learn, as they have done for a couple of centuries, new ways
of designing and carrying out their experiments.
You’ll pay a commission when you buy and
sell an ETF. ETFs pay management fees and
operating expenses. They may also pay trailing
The fees and expenses for an ETF are often
lower than what you would pay for a mutual
fund. If an ETF simply follows an index, the
manager doesn’t have to do as much research
into investments or as much buying and selling
Segregated funds are insurance products that
combine investment funds with insurance
coverage. You buy and sell segregated funds
under an insurance contract.
Tenure legislation also is often blind or hostile to the traditional claims of indigenous
communities and disregards their natural resource management systems and rights. Policies fostering
the colonisation of indigenous areas – sometimes to divert pressure for land reform effectively
encourage colonists to treat land occupied by indigenous communities as “open-access”.
State policies have also had a significant impact on the property regimes governing large-
scale grazing lands, and consequently on pastoralists’ livelihoods.
Conferences in the medical or pharmaceutical sectors often attract lucrative sponsorship from
pharmaceutical and medical equipment companies keen to promote their products and these
events usually have valuable commercial exhibitions attached. The commercial sponsors will
often host groups of their top clients in whichever specialist field and prepare a luxury
programme for them. These groups can make up as much as 75% of the delegates attending a
conference and there is competition between the companies to provide quality programmes for
their delegates e.g.
The Internet is arguably one of the greatest innovations of modern society—allowing for countless new businesses to thrive and dramatically altering the way society operates. The Internet has enabled a global marketplace to flourish with lightning-quick communication and an unparalleled access to information.
The Plant Protection Agreement for the Asia and Pacific region (APPPC) was revised between 1997 and
1999 to update and align the Agreement with the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC 1997) and
the WTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement 1995). The
Agreement contains provisions referring specifically to SALB with a related appendix describing procedures
for reducing the risk of introduction of SALB into the region.
The provisions of the APPPC Agreement placed stringent requirement on all contracting parties.
The third challenge is to develop health strategies that respond to the diverse
and evolving needs of countries. This means designing cost-effective strategies
which address those diseases and conditions which account for the greatest
share of the burden of disease, now and in the future. In addition to the
priorities reflected in the MDGs, reproductive health interventions will be
essential in all countries. Efforts to reduce violence and injuries - as well as
noncommunicable diseases such as those related to cardiovascular disease and
tobacco use - are important almost everywhere.
The elderly in India often end up in a state of deprivation and negligence as there is no proper
social security system as in the West (OASIS, 1999). The majority of the elderly work in the
informal sector with low levels of wages and deficient working conditions and this has also
put the aged in a state of deprivation, vulnerability and distress in old age in terms of both
health and economic security (Helpage International, 2002). Empirical studies by different
researchers have shown a gradual decline in the standard of life of the aged with high...
Several figures in this primer show the cumulative percent change in private health
insurance or health insurance premiums (Figures 11, 15, and 20). These cumulative
increases may vary from figure to figure because different years are used, the data
sources differ, and what is being measured varies.
Significant enlargement of the clitoris may
signify excess androgens and a likely adrenal or ovarian tumor. After child-
birth, prolapse or scarring from an episiotomy may be present. Bartholin’s
glands may swell and become palpable from a retention cyst, infection, or
trauma. In elderly patients, a swollen Bartholin’s gland should raise the
possibility of an underlying cancer. After menopause, atrophic changes
may include a urethral caruncle, which appears as a cherry red polypoid
mass extending from the urethral opening and represents prolapse of the ure-
The major clinical symptom of parasitic gastroenteritis is severe diarrhoea.
Diarrhoea may result from other causes such as sharp changes in diet,
especially at the beginning of the rains. Parasitic gastroenteritis may,
however, be linked to the rains through an upsurge in parasite burden at this
time. In acute cases of diarrhoea, there is severe loss of body fluid and
minerals resulting into rapid loss of body weight and condition. Parasitic
diarrhoea can usually be cured by broad-spectrum anthelmintics used
At this point, it is worth mentioning that the paper is solely concerned with the structure
of risk in the stock market, not with the structure of expected returns. Multi-factor models
of the covariance matrix can still be very useful if economic arguments tie them up to the
cross-section of expected returns, as in the Arbitrage Pricing Theory of Ross (1976). Any
discussion of the relationship between risk factors and expected returns is outside the scope
of the paper.
The OECD INFE Core Questionnaire has so far been used in 14 countries: of these, 12 originally
volunteered to pilot the questionnaire (Armenia; Czech Republic; Estonia; Germany; Hungary; Ireland;
Malaysia; Norway; Peru; Poland; South Africa and the United Kingdom), whilst the 13th
, Albania joined
the pilot at a later stage with the guidance of our INFE Measurement Subgroup Expert from Italy.
The new strategy of ENHPS includes also the idea of a perspective change of the health promoting
school network into a health promoting school movement. This idea, however, cannot be put into
practice in the Czech Republic before the health promoting school model programme is tested and
revised by its authors. Another reason why this idea is premature is the fact that the health
promoting school model programme has not yet gained all the necessary conditions to function
within the educational system.
Such theories do not simply have the cross-sectional implication that small
¯rms' risk will be more strongly a®ected by tighter credit markets in all eco-
nomic states. Based on the idea that a decline in a borrower's net worth
raises the agency cost on external ¯nance, the theories identify asymmetries
in the e®ect of tighter credit market conditions on risk during recessions and
Supraventricular tachycardia may be caused by abnormal conduction pathways
such as the Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome, characterised on the ECG by a short P-
R interval and an abnormal delta wave on the upstroke of the QRS complex. The child
may develop sudden episodes of tachycardia associated with heart rates of
240beats/min, up to 300beats/min. These appear on ECG as narrow complex
rhythms. The child may feel faint and uncomfortable during an arrhythmia.
Delivery strategies based on existing vaccination programmes and programme staff may
not require additional human resources. However, training and supervision of staff are
critical components of a delivery strategy, and will require specific funds for preparation of
guidelines, manuals, training materials and methods to evaluate competencies. Supervision
of staff should use existing human resource infrastructure, and aim to strengthen
procedures and schedules.