The United States must restructure mathematics education--both what is learned and the way it is taught--if children are to develop the mathematical knowledge and skills they will need to be personally and professionally competent in the twenty-first century. Joining the recent reports that have opened a national dialogue on these issues, Reshaping School Mathematics focuses discussion on essential ideas that transcend details of current curricula or assessment results.
As states and local school districts implement more rigorous assessment and accountability systems,
teachers often face long lists of mathematics topics or learning expectations to address at each grade level,
with many topics repeating from year to year. Lacking clear, consistent priorities and focus, teachers stretch to
find the time to present important mathematical topics effectively and in depth.
Society’s technological, economic, and cultural changes of the last 50 years
have made many important mathematical ideas more relevant and accessible
in work and in everyday life. As examples of mathematics proliferate, the
mathematics education community is provided with both a responsibility and an
opportunity. Educators have a responsibility to provide a high-quality mathematics
education for all of our students.
Learning mathematics in the middle
grades is a critical component in the
education of our nation’s youth. The
mathematics foundation laid during
these years provides students with the
skills and knowledge to study higher
level mathematics during high school,
provides the necessary mathematical
base for success in other disciplines such
as science, and lays the groundwork for
mathematically literate citizens. A
variety of evidence suggests that the
mathematics education landscape is
shifting and evolving rapidly....
The mathematics students need to learn today is not the same mathematics that
their parents and grandparents needed to learn. When today's students become
adults, they will face new demands for mathematical proficiency that school
mathematics should attempt to anticipate. Moreover, mathematics is a realm no
longer restricted to a select few. All young Americans must learn to think
mathematically, and they must think mathematically to learn.
Today the United States has the challenge and the opportunity to provide
all students with the mathematical knowledge, skills, and confidence
they will need in a highly technical world. There is considerable nationwide
interest in improving students’ understanding of mathematics, combined
with an emerging consensus about the essential elements of mathematics
instruction; in addition, research has provided valuable insights into how children
learn. Together these factors are opening the way to substantial and enduring
progress in school mathematics....
.The Contest Problem Book V
American High School Mathematics Examinations and American Invitational Mathematics Examinations
Problems and solutions compiled and augmented by George Berzsenyi
Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology
Stephen B Maurer
THE MATHEMATICAL ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA
.NEW MATHEMATICAL LIBRARY published by The Mathematical Association of America Editorial Committee Underwood Dudley, Editor DePauw University Ross Honsberger, University of Waterloo Daniel Kennedy, Baylor School Michael J. McAsey, Bradley University Mark E.
Sincemany excellent treatises on the history ofmathemat-
ics are available, there may seem little reason for writing
still another. But most current works are severely techni-
cal, written by mathematicians for other mathematicians
or for historians of science. Despite the admirable schol-
arship and often clear presentation of these works, they are not especially well adapted
to the undergraduate classroom. (Perhaps the most notable exception is Howard Eves’s
popular account, An Introduction to the History of Mathematics.
The main objective of the doctoral research was to improve the performance in
Physics and Mathematics, at Advanced Level Examinations, of two rural girls’
secondary schools in Arua (Muni and Ediofe) through application of e-learning.
Both schools have no functional science laboratories and libraries. They also
have no qualified and committed teachers who can competently teach at that
level of education. The research included participatory action research
methodology and the use of interactive multimedia CD-ROMs for Physics and
Mathematics as the main course delivery platform.
Early childhood education has risen to the top of the national policy
agenda with recognition that ensuring educational success and attainment
must begin in the earliest years of schooling. There is now a substantial
body of research to guide efforts to support young children’s learning.
Over the past 15 years, great strides have been made in supporting young
children’s literacy. This report summarizes the now substantial literature on
learning and teaching mathematics for young children in hopes of catalyzing
a similar effort in mathematics....
Architecture and Mathematics have constantly
balanced between two extremes: an experiential
dimension often imbued with contemplative
connotations, and the quest for operative
techniques that do not necessarily present a spatial
meaning. Hence the ambiguity we find ourselves
in today, faced simultaneously with architecture’s
estrangement from mathematics and the spectacular
diffusion of computational tools.
The curriculum vitae of Alice Turner Schafer lists two specializations: abstract
algebra (group theory) and women in mathematics. As early as her high school
years Alice exhibited a love for mathematics and an interest in teaching as a
career. As a mathematics educator she championed the full participation of
women in mathematics.
Mathematical Finance Introduction to continuous time Financial Market models
Dr. Christian-Oliver Ewald
School of Economics and Finance University of St.Andrews
Electronic copy of this paper is available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=976593
.Abstract These are my Lecture Notes for a course in Continuous Time Finance which I taught in the Summer term 2003 at the University of Kaiserslautern. I am aware that the notes are not yet free of error and the manuscrip needs further improvement. I am happy about any comment on the notes. Please send your comments via e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Russian mathematics (later Soviet mathematics, and Russian mathematics once
again) occupies a special place in twentieth-century mathematics. In addition
to its well-known achievements, Russian mathematics established a unique style
of research based on the existence of prominent mathematical schools. These
schools were headed by recognized leaders, who became famous due to their
talents and outstanding contributions to science.
Diane Ravitch, the noted education historian points out “At every level
of formal education, from nursery school to graduate school, equal opportu-
nity became the overriding goal of postwar7 educational reformers. Some-
times those who led the battles seemed to forget why it was important to
keep students in school longer; to forget that the ﬁght for higher enroll-
ments was part of a crusade against ignorance, and that institutions would
be judged by what their students had learned as well as by how many were
Mathematics and science are key areas of knowledge for the development of individuals and for the social and economic development of South Africa. In November 2002, about 9000 Grade 8 learners from South African public schools participated in the Trends in International Mathematics...
In order to engage the non-verbal areas of the brain in problem solving,
extensive training seems to be needed. This is probably not unlike the
processes that one uses to learn to play a musical instrument.
must practice! One of the eﬀects, and a clear demonstration that the process
is working, is when students become ﬂuent with the basic operations and
don’t have to think about each separate step.
For school mathematics, students must practice with numbers. They
must add them until basic addition is automatic. The same for subtraction
The 2002 Clay School on Geometry and String Theory was held at the Isaac
Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge, UK from 24 March - 20
April 2002. It was organized jointly by the organizers of two concurrent workshops
at the Newton Institute, one on Higher Dimensional Complex Geometry organized
by Alessio Corti, Mark Gross and Miles Reid, and the other on M-theory organized
by Robbert Dijkgraaf, Michael Douglas, Jerome Gauntlett and Chris Hull, in
collaboration with Arthur Jaffe, then president of the Clay Mathematics Institute....
I’m the worst, because as I said there’s no way I can get it into my head, even though I pay
attention’ (Abreu, 1993, p. 124).
This was how Severina, daughter of an unschooled sugar-cane farm worker, judged
her performance in school mathematics. She entered school at the age of 6. At 14 she
was still in year 5. She repeated year 4 three times. After school she worked on the
production of manioc flour, and also helped her father in sugar-cane farming during
the harvest. She acknowledged that people in sugar-cane farming could do sums:
‘Yes, they do, but I think they do sums in their...