Performing experiments in low Earth orbit has been the focus of much of the research funded by
NASA’s Physical Sciences Division (PSD) and its predecessors for over 30 years. This microgravity
research can be divided into five broad areas, all of which focus primarily on phenomena that are
strongly perturbed by gravity: biotechnology, combustion, fluid physics, fundamental physics, and
This report is in response to a request from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill
Trustee Council to review the Gulf of Alaska Ecosystem Monitoring and
Research Program (GEM). To ensure that the GEM program is based on a
science plan that is robust, far-reaching, and scientifically sound, the
Trustee Council asked the National Academies to serve as an independent
advisor. The Academies appointed a special committee and charged
it to review the scope and content of the program as it evolved.
Difficult tasks are often very simply stated. This committee was asked by
Congress to “conduct a study to assess gender differences in the careers of science,
engineering, and mathematics (SEM) faculty, focusing on four-year institutions of
higher education that award bachelor’s and graduate degrees. The study will build
on the National Academies’ previous work and examine issues such as faculty
hiring, promotion, tenure, and allocation of institutional resources including (but
not limited to) laboratory space.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration asked the Board on Science,
Technology, and Economic Policy (STEP) to hold a one-day symposium to
review the NASA Ames Research Center’s plans to develop a science and technology
Since their publication in 1996, the National
Science Education Standards (NSES) have been
at the center of the science education reform
movement in the United States. Prior to that
time, the National Science Foundation, other
government agencies, and private foundations
had supported the development of a plethora of
curricula and approaches to instruction; these
led to such R&D organizations as the Biological
Sciences Curriculum Study, the Chemical Bond
Approach, and the Physical Science Study
Before joining the Board in 2002, Justice Daher was Chief Justice of the
Commonwealth’s Housing Court Department. He is a graduate of Northeastern
College of Allied Sciences (New England College of Pharmacy); Suffolk
University Law School; and Boston University Graduate School of Education.
Chief Justice Daher has written several books and articles on landlord/tenant
issues and serves as a lecturer for the American Trial Lawyers Association.
This study examines the role of master’s education in the natural
sciences and whether and how master’s degree programs might be
enhanced to bolster our nation’s workforce and our science-based industries.
To carry out the study, the National Academies appointed a committee
of experts that was charged with exploring and answering, as possible
given the data available, the following questions:
Assembly Bill 748, enacted in 1997, requires
that the test or tests assessing the progress of
English learners toward achieving fluency in
English be aligned with state standards for
English-language development. The San
Diego County Office of Education, under
contract with the Standards and Assessment
Division of the California Department of
Education, named an advisory committee of
state and national leaders to assist in the
development of the English-language development
Sven Erik Jørgensen is professor of environmental chemistry at the Danish
University of Pharmaceutical Sciences. He has doctorates in engineering from
Karlsruhe University and sciences from Copenhagen University. He has been
editor in chief of Ecological Modelling since the journal started in 1975. He is
chairman of the International Lake Environment Committee. He has edited or
authored 58 books in Danish and English and written 300 papers of which twothirds
have been published in peer-reviewed international journals.
This volume constitutes the Proceedings of the 9th International Congress
of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science arranged by the Division of
Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science of the International Union of
History and Philosophy of Science. The logical sections of the Congress also
constituted the European Logic Colloqium '91. The Congress took place in
Uppsala, Sweden, from August 7 to August 14, 1991.
The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing
Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the
councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering,
and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the
report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate
Support for this project was provided by the National Academies.
As indicated in Chapter 1 of this book, land application of sewage sludge and
biosolids has been practiced for centuries. Over the past 40 years, I have been
involved in various aspects of organic matter and soils. Since 1972, I have researched,
studied, and published on various aspects of biosolids management, concentrating
on composting and the public health aspects of land application. I have been an
active member on the Water Environment Federation Residuals Committee and The
U.S. Composting Council Board of Directors. In 1977, I published a book titled
Science of Composting...
The importance of cyanobacterial toxins in drinking water sources has been highlighted
by the adoption of a provisional drinking water “Guideline Value” for microcystin-
LR, one of the most abundant toxins, by the World Health Organization
(WHO). A number of nations have now legislated a guideline for microcystins into
their drinking water regulations, with the consequent need for monitoring and analytical
techniques. The Chemical Safety Committee of the WHO also has under
consideration a Guideline Value for cylindrospermopsin, the other most damaging
In relation to studies and understanding of broad energy and pollution management
issues, the U.S. National Academies have had an on-going program of cooperation with
the Chinese Academies (Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of
Engineering) for a number of years. Joint study activities date to the late 1990s and led to
the publication in 2000 of Cooperation in the Energy Futures of China and the United
States. This volume was the first examination of the broad energy questions facing both
nations at the turn of the new millennium. ...
From the interior of the Sun, to the upper atmosphere and near-space environment of Earth, and
outward to a region far beyond Pluto where the Sun’s influence wanes, advances during the past decade in
space physics and solar physics—the disciplines NASA refers to as heliophysics—have yielded
spectacular insights into the phenomena that affect our home in space. This report, from the National
Research Council’s (NRC’s) Committee for a Decadal Strategy in Solar and Space Physics, is the second
NRC decadal survey in heliophysics.
The first panel of our program will
focus on the next generation of
scientists, “Science for All Students.”
We have three panelists participating in this
discussion: Drs. Leon Lederman, Richard Tapia,
and Marcia Linn.
Dr. Lederman is an internationally renowned
high-energy physicist, the Director Emeritus of
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in
Batavia, Illinois. He holds an appointment as
the Pritzker Professor of Science at Illinois
Institute of Technology in Chicago.
The Sun to the Earth—and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in
Solar and Space Physics is the product of an 18-month effort that began in
December 2000, when the National Research Council (NRC) approved a
study to assess the current status and future directions of U.S. ground- and
space-based programs in solar and space physics research. The NRC’s
Space Studies Board and its Committee on Solar and Space Physics organized
the study, which was carried out by five ad hoc study panels and the
15-member Solar and Space Physics Survey Committee, chaired by Louis J.
The committee was tasked to determine the best instrumentation and
procedures for measuring BFD (see Box S-1). To do this, it reviewed technical
specifications, viewed demonstrations of the operation and use of current and
prospective systems, and evaluated factors such as human handling variability,
process transparency, and software variability judgment.
The committee found that given the current clay variation, a measurement
precision (standard deviation) of 0.5 mm is sufficient; instruments featuring
greater precision add little practical value to the testing process.
This report provides a long-term assessment of and outlook for nuclear physics. The first
phase of the report articulates the scientific rationale and objectives of the field, while the second
phase provides a global context for the field and its long-term priorities and proposes a
framework for progress through 2020 and beyond. The full statement of task for the committee is
in Appendix A.