So begins our journey. It is a journey that others have taken before us;
in fact, in reaching our destination we will rely on the efforts of those
who came before. Just as Columbus retraced steps taken by others before
him (perhaps as long as two millennia before he sailed), so we gratefully
acknowledge the work of those who went before. Yet, like the voyage of
Columbus, there is a sense of beginning, a tenor to the enterprise that
makes it a voyage of discovery.
Detection of cancer at early stages that can be treated through surgery is a
difficult task. One methodology for cancer biomarker discovery exploits
the fact that glycoproteins produced by cancer cells have altered glycan
structures, although the proteins themselves are common, ubiquitous,
abundant, and familiar.
The discovery that microRNAs (miRNAs) are synthesized as hairpin-con-taining precursors and share many features has stimulated the development
of several computational approaches for identifying new miRNA genes in
various animal species.
Shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH) is the fourth enzyme involved in the shiki-mate pathway. It catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of 3-dehy-droshikimate to shikimate, and has been developed as a promising target
for the discovery of antimicrobial agent. In this report, we identified a new
aroEgene encoding SDH fromHelicobacter pyloristrain SS1. The recom-binantH.
Acquisition of phonological s y s t e m s can be insightfully studied in t e r m s of discovery procedures. T h i s paper describes a discovery procedure, i m p l e m e n t e d in Lisp, capable of determining a set of ordered phonological rules, which m a y be in opaque contexts~ from a set of surface forms arranged in paradigms.
Discovery-driven translational research in breast cancer is moving steadily
from the study of cell lines to the analysis of clinically relevant samples
that, together with the ever increasing number of novel and powerful tech-nologies available within genomics, proteomics and functional genomics,
promise to have a major impact on the way breast cancer will be diag-nosed, treated and monitored in the future.
Upon hearing that there is to be a book about discovery and exploration in the ancient world, many people
express some surprise: “Were there explorers in the ancient world?” “What did they discover?”
Such doubts are understandable because there are so many preconceptions and misconceptions about the nature of discovery and exploration.
The discovery of efficacious new human therapeutic agents is one of humanity’s most vital
tasks. It is an enormously demanding activity that requires creativity, a vast range of scientific
knowledge, and great persistence. It is also an exceedingly expensive activity. In an
ideal world, no education would be complete without some exposure to the ways in which
new medicines are discovered and developed. For those young people interested in science
or medicine, such knowledge is arguably mandatory....
As aindirectly infer the details of the physiological makeup or a subject's genetic
biomass, another form of remote sensing as well? Questions like this and expect
to better reflect the scope and coverage of the chapter has led us a new title,
Biomass - The discovery, production and use. It reflects a balance between the
three areas of science and practice of biomass.
It has been a privilege to watch the growth of RNA interference technology over
the last ten years. Starting with a mixture of curiosity and chagrin, the field has
grown into a substantial enterprise which impacts (and utilizes resources from)
virtually every field of biomedical research. Research in RNAi derives from a set of
apparently unconnected observations: strange pigment patterns in plants, unexpected
failures and successes in antisense and overexpression studies, small regulatory
RNAs in bacteria.
The urgent need to ensure the conservation of biological diversity is now
widely recognised, but the role of an intellectual property rights regime as
an instrument for biodiversity conservation is poorly understood and often
hotly debated. This volume is a detailed analysis of the economic and
scientific rationales for the use of a property rights-based approach to
biodiversity conservation. It discusses the justification for, and implemen-
tation of, intellectual property rights regimes as incentive systems to
Advances in the diagnosis, prevention, treatment and cure of neurological diseases
are based upon scientific discovery. The journey from discovery to treatment is often
arduous and involves both basic and clinical science. Over the ages, multiple intertwined
paths of discovery connect the recognition of distinct diseases of the nervous
system to exquisite diagnostic descriptions, which, when coupled with the scientific
understanding of the disease, have allowed the development of effective treatments
T. COLIN CAMPBELL, at his core, is still a farm boy from northern Virginia.
When we spend time together we inevitably share our stories from the
farm. Whether it is spreading cow manure, driving tractors or herding
cattle, both of us share a rich history in farming.
But from these backgrounds, both he and I went on to other careers.
It is for his other career accomplishments that I came to admire Colin.
He was involved in the discovery of a chemical later called dioxin, and
he went on to direct one of the most important diet and health studies
ever conducted, the China Study.
The identification of the yeastphosphatidate phosphohydrolase(PAH1) gene
encoding an enzyme with phosphatidate phosphatase (PAP; 3-sn-phosphati-date phosphohydrolase, EC 188.8.131.52) activity led to the discovery of mam-malianLipinsand subsequently to homologous genes from plants. In the
present study, we describe the functional characterization ofArabidopsis
and Brassica napushomologs ofPAH1.
In 2002, methodological issues around time series analyses of air pollution and health attracted
the attention of the scienti¯c community, policy makers, the press, and the diverse stakeholders con-
cerned with air pollution.
This report is a product of the Committee on USGS Water Resources
Research, which provides consensus advice to the Water Resources Division
(WRD) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) on scientific, research, and
programmatic issues. The committee is one of the groups that works under the
auspices of the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) of the National
Research Council. The committee considers a variety of topics that are
important scientifically and programmatically to the USGS and the nation and
issues reports when appropriate....
A gene encoding a eugenol oxidase was identified in the genome fromRho-dococcus sp. strain RHA1. The bacterial FAD-containing oxidase shares
45% amino acid sequence identity with vanillyl alcohol oxidase from the
fungus Penicillium simplicissimum. Eugenol oxidase could be expressed at
high levels in Escherichia coli, which allowed purification of 160 mg of
eugenol oxidase from 1 L of culture. Gel permeation experiments and
macromolecular MS revealed that the enzyme forms homodimers.
Polyamine oxidase (PAO) and spermine oxidase (SMO) are involved in the
catabolism of polyamines – basic regulators of cell growth and prolifer-ation. The discovery of selective inhibitors of PAO and SMO represents an
important tool in studying the involvement of these enzymes in polyamine
homeostasis and a starting point for the development of novel antineoplas-tic drugs.
Research on the discovery of terms from corpora has focused on word sequences whose recurrent occurrence in a corpus is indicative of their terminological status, and has not addressed the issue of discovering terms when data is sparse. This becomes apparent in the case of noun compounding, which is extremely productive: more than half of the candidate compounds extracted from a corpus are attested only once. We show how evidence about established (i.e.