Scientific knowledge

Xem 1-20 trên 1414 kết quả Scientific knowledge
  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về sinh học được đăng trên tạp chí sinh học thế giới đề tài: Statistical methods and the subjective basis of scientific knowledge

    pdf0p toshiba19 15-11-2011 17 1   Download

  • Attempts to understand knowledge phenomenon in organization can be traced throughout management history. Taylor (1911), in his ‘scientific management’, attempted to formalize workers’ experience and tacit skills into objective and scientific knowledge without insight that a worker’s judgement was a source of new knowledge. However, it was Barnard (1938) who shed light on the importance of ‘behavioural knowledge’ in the management processes.

    pdf18p monkey68 13-03-2009 195 22   Download

  • We present work on the automatic generation of short indicative-informative abstracts of scientific and technical articles. The indicative part of the abstract identifies the topics of the document while the informative part of the abstract elaborate some topics according to the reader's interest by motivating the topics, describing entities and defining concepts. We have defined our method of automatic abstracting by studying a corpus professional abstracts. The method also considers the reader's interest as essential in the process of abstracting. ...

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  • We describe the early stage of our methodology of knowledge acquisition from technical texts. First, a partial morpho-syntactic analysis is performed to extract "candidate terms". Then, the knowledge engineer, assisted by an automatic clustering tool, builds the "conceptual fields" of the domain. We focus on this conceptual analysis stage, describe the data prepared from the results of the morpho-syntactic analysis and show the results of the clustering module and their interpretation.

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  • Under the influence of globalization, and the impact of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) that modify radically our relationship with space and time, the hierarchical company locked up on its local borders becomes an Extended Company, without borders, opened and adaptable. In this context, from a Knowledge Management view point, the employees at their computerized desktop need to access new types of information.

    pdf8p tuanlocmuido 13-12-2012 19 3   Download

  • Raw materials used in the production of biobased products are produced in agriculture, forestry and microbial systems. The content of the material undergoes treatment and processing inarefinerytoconvert it,similartothepetroleum.Whilepetroleum isobtainedby extraction, biomass already exists as a product (Kamm & Kamm, 2004) that can then be modifiedwithin the actual process, to optimally adapt the results so as to obtain particular targetproduct(s).

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  • We have developed an approach to natural language processing in which the natural language processor is viewed as a knowledge-based system whose knowledge is about the meanings of the utterances of its language. The approach is orzented around the phrase rather than the word as the basic unit. We believe that this p a r a d i ~ for language processing not only extends the capabilities of other natural language systems, but handles those tasks that previous systems could perform in e more systematic and extensible manner. ...

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  • This paper discusses two problems that arise in the Generation of Referring Expressions: (a) numeric-valued attributes, such as size or location; (b) perspective-taking in reference. Both problems, it is argued, can be resolved if some structure is imposed on the available knowledge prior to content determination. We describe a clustering algorithm which is sufficiently general to be applied to these diverse problems, discuss its application, and evaluate its performance. close’ on the given dimension, and ‘sufficiently distant’ from those of their distractors. ...

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  • Existing work in the extraction of commonsense knowledge from text has been primarily restricted to factoids that serve as statements about what may possibly obtain in the world. We present an approach to deriving stronger, more general claims by abstracting over large sets of factoids. Our goal is to coalesce the observed nominals for a given predicate argument into a few predominant types, obtained as WordNet synsets. The results can be construed as generically quantified sentences restricting the semantic type of an argument position of a predicate....

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  • In this paper, we extend the work on using latent cross-language topic models for identifying word translations across comparable corpora. We present a novel precisionoriented algorithm that relies on per-topic word distributions obtained by the bilingual LDA (BiLDA) latent topic model. The algorithm aims at harvesting only the most probable word translations across languages in a greedy fashion, without any prior knowledge about the language pair, relying on a symmetrization process and the one-to-one constraint.

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  • A tool is described which helps in the creation, extension and updating of lexical knowledge bases (LKBs). Two levels of representation are distinguished: a static storage level and a dynamic knowledge level. The latter is an object-oriented environment containing linguistic and lexicographic knowledge. At the knowledge level, constructors and filters can be defined. Constructors are objects which extend the LKB both horizontally (new information) and vertically (new entries) using the linguistic knowledge.

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  • In the field of knowledge based systems for natural language processing, one of the most challenging aims is to use parts of an existing knowledge base for different domains and/or different tasks. We support the point that this problem can only be solved by using adequate metainformation about the content and structuring principles of the representational systems concerned. One of the prerequisites in this respect is the transparency of modelling decisions.

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  • A semi-automatic procedure of linguistic knowledge acquisition is proposed, which combines corpus-based techniques with the conventional rule-based approach. The rule-based component generates all the possible hypotheses of defects which the existing linguistic knowledge might contain, when it fails to parse a sentence. The rule-based component does not try to identify the defects, but generates a set of hypotheses and the corpus-based component chooses the plausible ones among them.

    pdf10p buncha_1 08-05-2013 11 2   Download

  • Brightly colored condoms, arranged in the shape of bicycles, eyeglasses, or flowers: part of an extensive campaign against the AIDS risk, these have been a common sight on billboards in Germany for several years now. An advertising spot presented on the Arte television channel (which defines itself as the cultural television channel of Europe) calls on viewers to “fight together.” The spots on German television (distributed by both private and public channels) are about “not giving AIDS a chance.

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  • Hence, i t is quite possible that some of the comments may turn out to be inappropriate or else they have already been taken care of in the f u l l texts. In a couple of cases~ I had the benefit of reading some e a r l i e r longer related reports, which were very helpful. All the papers (except by Sangster) deal with either knowledge representation, particular types of knowledge to be represented, or how certain types of knowledge are to be used.

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  • it is widely reco~nlzed that the process of understandln~ natural language texts cannot be accomplished w i t h o u t accessin~ mundane Knowledge a b o u t the w o r l d [2, 4, 6, 7]. That is, in order to resolve ambiguities, form expectations, and make causal connections between events, we must make use of all sorts of episodic, stereotypic and factual knowledge. In this p a p e r , we are concerned with the way functional knowledge of objects, and associations between objects can be exploited in an understandln~ system. ...

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  • The knowledge representation is an important factor in natural language generation since it limits the semantic capabilities of the generation system. This paper identifies several information types in a knowledge representation that can be used to generate meaningful responses to questions about database structure. Creating such a knowledge representation, however, is a long and tedious process. A system is presented which uses the contents of the database to form part of this knowledge representation automatically. ...

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  • A computer system is being developed to handle the acquisition, representation, and use of linguistic knowledge. The computer system is rule-based and utilizes a semantic network for knowledge storage and representation. In order to facilitate the interaction between user and system, input of linguistic knowledge and computer responses are in natural language. Knowledge of various types can be entered and utilized: syntactic and semantic; assertions and rules.

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  • Knowledge-Based Report Generation is a technique for automatically generating natural language reports from computer databases. It is so named because it applies knowledge-based expert systems software to the problem of text generation. The first application of the technique, a system for generating natural language stock reports from a daily stock quotes database, is partially implemented.

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  • The knowledge structures implemented in UC, the UNLX Consultant are sufficient for UC to reply to a large range of user queries in the domain of the UNIX operating system. This paper describes how these knowledge structures are used in the natural language tasks of parsing, reference, planning, goal detection, and generation, and ~ow they are organized to enable efficient access even with the large database of an expert system.

    pdf5p bungio_1 03-05-2013 11 1   Download

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