Scientific principles

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  • Presents the first unified exposition of the physical principles at the heart of NanoMEMS-based devices and applications Provides newcomers with a much needed coherent scientific base for undertaking study and research in this field Takes great pains in rendering transparent advanced physical concepts and techniques, such as quantum information, second quantization, Luttinger liquids, bosonization, and superconductivity

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  • “Economics is a study of mankind in the ordinary business of life.” So wrote Alfred Marshall, the great 19th-century economist, in his textbook, Principles of Economics. Although we have learned much about the economy since Marshall’s time, this definition of economics is as true today as it was in 1890, when the first edition of his text was published. Why should you, as a student at the beginning of the 21st century, embark on the study of economics? There are three reasons.

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  • This book is designed to introduce doctoral and graduate students to the process of scientific research in the social sciences, business, education, public health, and related disciplines. Table of Contents About the Author

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  • Risk Assessment Vaccines are considered safe when the risk of use is judged to be acceptable in relation to the benefits. For vaccines given to healthy individuals for diseases that are no longer common, acceptable risks are set at very low levels—indeed, far lower than for most medical products. However, "safety" does not and cannot ever mean "zero risk." The determination of safety is thus based on a scientific assessment of the data and a considered judgment of all the issues involved, including benefits and risks.

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  • A Hausdorff measure version of the Duffin-Schaeffer conjecture in metric number theory is introduced and discussed. The general conjecture is established modulo the original conjecture. The key result is a Mass Transference Principle which allows us to transfer Lebesgue measure theoretic statements for lim sup subsets of Rk to Hausdorff measure theoretic statements. In view of this, the Lebesgue theory of lim sup sets is shown to underpin the general Hausdorff theory. This is rather surprising since the latter theory is viewed to be a subtle refinement of the former. ...

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  • Analytic number theorists usually seek to show that sequences which appear naturally in arithmetic are “well-distributed” in some appropriate sense. In various discrepancy problems, combinatorics researchers have analyzed limitations to equidistribution, as have Fourier analysts when working with the “uncertainty principle”. In this article we find that these ideas have a natural setting in the analysis of distributions of sequences in analytic number theory, formulating a general principle, and giving several examples. ...

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  • By means of the Hardy-Littlewood method, we apply a new mean value theorem for exponential sums to confirm the truth, over the rational numbers, of the Hasse principle for pairs of diagonal cubic forms in thirteen or more variables. 1. Introduction Early work of Lewis [14] and Birch [3], [4], now almost a half-century old, shows that pairs of quite general homogeneous cubic equations possess non-trivial integral solutions whenever the dimension of the corresponding intersection is suitably large (modern refinements have reduced this permissible affine dimension to 826; see [13]). ...

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  • The Committee evaluated whether the 100% CCF for contingent trade finance products in calculating the leverage ratio is too high and whether the 100% CCF disadvantage banks specialised in trade finance. In principle, off-balance sheet positions are subject to a CCF when calculating the risk-based capital adequacy measure under the Basel capital framework. The CCF reflects the likelihood of an off-balance sheet position becoming an on-balance sheet item. The Committee decided to not change the CCF for calculating the leverage ratio.

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  • We introduce a typed feature logic system providing both universal implicational principles as well as definite clauses over feature terms. We show that such an architecture supports a modular encoding of linguistic theories and allows for a compact representation using underspecification. The system is fully implemented and has been used as a workbench to develop and test large HPSG grammars. The techniques described in this paper are not restricted to a specific implementation, but could be added to many current feature-based grammar development systems.

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  • Microbiological method to detect antimicrobial compounds in shrimp has been adapted and standardized based on the principle of "Kidney Test" of Belgium. The purpose of this study was to adapt the method "Kidney Test" of Belgium to detect three groups ...

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  • General and simple principles are identified that govern signal transduc-tion. The effects of kinase and phosphatase inhibition on a MAP kinase pathway are first examinedin silico. Quantitative measures for the control of signal amplitude, duration and integral strength are introduced. We then identify and prove new principles, such that total control on signal ampli-tude and on final signal strength must amount to zero, and total control on signal duration and on integral signal intensity must equal)1.

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  • First principles molecular dynamics studies on active-site models of flavo-cytochromeb2 (l-lactate : cytochrome coxidoreductase, Fcb2), in complex with the substrate, were carried out for the first time to contribute towards establishing the mechanism of the enzyme-catalyzed l-lactate oxidation reaction, a still-debated issue.

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  • As one of the most important families of non-natural poly-mers with the propensity to form well-defined secondary structures, theb-peptides are attracting increasing attention. The compounds incorporatingb-amino acid residues have found various applications in medicinal chemistry and biochemistry.The conformational pool ofb-peptides com-prises several periodic folded conformations, which can be classified as helices, and nonpolar and polar strands.The latter two are prone to form pleated sheets.

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  • This paper describes a computational model of human sentence processing based on the principles and parameters paradigm of current linguistic theory. The syntactic processing model posits four modules, recovering phrase structure, long-distance dependencies, coreference, and thematic structure. These four modules are implemented as recta-interpreters over their relevant components of the grammar, permitting variation in the deductive strategies employed by each module.

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  • The paper presents a constraint based semantic formalism for HPSG. The syntax-semantics interface directly implements syntactic conditions on quantifier scoping and distributivity. 1 The construction of semantic representations is guided" by general principles governing the interaction between syntax and semantics. Each of these principles acts as a constraint to narrow down the set of possible interpretations of a sentence.

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  • Subjects and scope of the dissertation are a system of 6 reservoirs (Ka Nak, An Khe, Ayun Ha, H'nang, Ba Ha and Hinh) and the flood flow regime on the Ba River basin. The thesis focuses on developing inter-reservoir operation principles to mitigate flood damages, protect downstream area, and ensure efficiency of water use.

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  • Class-tested and thoughtfully designed for student engagement, Principles of organic chemistry provides the tools and foundations needed by students in a short course or one-semester class on the subject. This book does not dilute the material or rely on rote memorization. Rather, it focuses on the underlying principles in order to make accessible the science that underpins so much of our day-to-day lives, as well as present further study and practice in medical and scientific fields.

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  • With its active, hands-on learning approach, this text enables readers to master the underlying principles of digital signal processing and its many applications in industries such as digital television, mobile and broadband communications, and medical/scientific devices. Carefully developed MATLAB® examples throughout the text illustrate the mathematical concepts and use of digital signal processing algorithms.

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  • Productive Workplaces, 25th Anniversary Edition, traces the origins of and validates “getting the whole system in the room,” a principle that has influenced large scale projects ever since the 1987 edition. The book was voted one of the five most influential books in the field by theOrganization Development Network in 2004. It provides a model, guidelines, and successful methods for improving organizations under conditions of nonstop change.

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  • Fluid mechanics is a fundamental branch of civil, chemical, and mechanical engineering which deals with the behavior of liquids and gases, particularly while flowing. This chapter provides a brief review of the vocabulary and fundamental equations of fluid mechanics, and reminds the HVAC designer of the scientific principles underlying much of the day-to-day applied science calculations. See Ref. 1 or a fluid mechanics text for additional detail.

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