Xem 1-20 trên 136 kết quả Scientific reasoning
  • Hundreds of people contributed to this book. Most of them were researchers who attended workshops and courses in which we collectively applied concepts about thinking and reasoning to the task of converting ideas and experimental data into focused articles for publication. They came from many countries and spoke many languages.

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  • Case-based reasoning (CBR) and rule-based reasoning (RBR) are two important methods in the knowledge engineering to support decision making (see [2, 7, 8, and 9]) in decision support systems (DSS). In rule-based reasoning the computer examines historical cases and generates rules, which are chained (forward or backward) to solve problems.

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  • We illustrate how the use of metaphorical views for reasoning with metaphor requires the mapping of information such as event shape, event rate and mental/emotional states from the source domain to the target domain. Such mappings are domain-independent and can be implemented by means of rules we call View Neutral Mapping Adjuncts (VNMAs). We give a list of the main VNMAs that appear to be required, and show how they can be incorporated into a pre-existing system (ATT-Meta) for metaphorical reasoning. ...

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  • The topic of the paper is the problem how to define case relations by semantic predicates. A general principle is outlined, which renders it possible to "calculate" case relations for a given representation of a (verb-)sememe by means of expressions. This principle is based on an assignment of case relations to primitive predicates and modification rules for nested expressions.

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  • We examine several behaviors for query systems that become possible with the ability to represent and reason about change in data bases: queries about possible futures, queries about alternative histories, and offers of monitors as responses to queries. A modal temporal logic is developed for this purpose. A completion axiom for history is given and modelling strategies are given by example.

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  • A prerequisite to a theory of the way agents understand speech acts is a theory of how their beliefs and intentions are revised as a consequence of events. This process of attitude revision is an interesting domain for the application of nonmonotonic reasoning because speech acts have a conventional aspect that is readily represented by defaults, but that interacts with an agent's beliefs and intentions in many complex ways that may override the defaults.

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  • Automated R e a s o n i n g techniques applied to the p r o b l e m of natural language correctness allow the d e s i g n of flexible training aids for the t e a c h i n g of foreign languages. The approach involves important advantages for both the student and the teacher by d e t e c t i n g possible errors and pointing out their reasons. Explanations may be given on four d i s t i n c t levels, thus offering differently instructive error messages according to the needs of the student.

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  • The paper adresses the problem of reasoning with ambiguities. Semantic representations are presented that leave scope relations between quantifiers a n d / o r other operators unspecified. Truth conditions are provided for these representations and different consequence relations are judged on the basis of intuitive correctness. Finally inference patterns are presented that operate directly on these underspecified structures, i.e. do not rely on any translation into the set of their disambiguations.

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  • English as their native tongue are compelled to write their work in English which, by chance, happens to be the de facto, universal language of science. As a result, it compelled me to address many of the aspects of scientific writing from the viewpoint of non-native English speaking authors and to emphasise that they are not as disadvantaged as they perhaps may think. The language of science which conveys logic and reasoning, is independent of the language in which it happens to be expressed.

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  • No science stands alone. If research done, findings found, conclusions drawn are not presented to the world then it is arguable whether they are of any real use at all. The reason for the research paper is to present the findings to the world, to share the information learned for others to do with it what they will. Why the research was originally conducted is of interest, but the researcher’s intentions, goals and conclusions are not the end.

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  • This popular book helps readers understand the difference between blindly accepting information and critical analysis and synthesis. It teaches how to react rationally to alternate points of view and develop a foundation for making personal choices about what to accept and what to reject in what we see and hear. Focusing on the question-asking skills and techniques necessary for evaluating different types of evidence, this book addresses critical thinking as a generic skill with many applications while emphasizing values and moral reasoning as an integral part of critical thinking.

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  • In the eighth grade and beyond, you will be asked to read, understand, and interpret a variety of texts, including stories and poems, reports, essays, and scientific and technical information . While a lot of your learning will still take place in the classroom, you will be expected to read more information and more on your outer layer. You will need not only to understand what you read but also to meet and evaluate what you read

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  • This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources.Reprinted material is quoted with permission ,and sources are indicated.A wide variety of refernces are listed .Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information,but the author and the publisher cannot assume responibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use.

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  • Teaching additional languages means teaching a second, third or further language within students’ countries of origin or in countries to which they have migrated. Because there are so many languages in the world and so many reasons why students should learn them, the teaching of additional languages is a great challenge and opportunity for educators.

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  • The Prophet is a collection of poetic essays that are philosophical, spiritual, and, above all, inspirational. Gibran’s musings are divided into twenty-eight chapters covering such sprawling topics as love, marriage, children, giving, eating and drinking, work, joy and sorrow, housing, clothes, buying and selling, crime and punishment, laws, freedom, reason and passion, pain, self-knowledge, teaching, friendship, talking, time, good and evil, prayer, pleasure, beauty, religion, and death.

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  • “Economics is a study of mankind in the ordinary business of life.” So wrote Alfred Marshall, the great 19th-century economist, in his textbook, Principles of Economics. Although we have learned much about the economy since Marshall’s time, this definition of economics is as true today as it was in 1890, when the first edition of his text was published. Why should you, as a student at the beginning of the 21st century, embark on the study of economics? There are three reasons.

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  • Said systems are complex, producing awhole that cannot be understood by only analyzing the individual parts. They must be dealt with as a system that is characterized by all the essential properties of any social system Yolles (2006). For this reason, the following properties must be taken into consideration when modeling organizational systems.

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  • There are several reasons that may explain why the prevalence of heart failure is increasing: ageing of the population, the success in prolonging survival in coronary patients, and the success in postponing coronary events by effective prevention in those patients at high risk or those patients who have already survived a first event (secondary prevention) (Senni et al, 1999). Advances in medical therapy have resulted in improved survival in patients with moderate and severe heart failure, but the prognosis for end-stage heart failure patients still remains poor.

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  • A second problem often observed in developing countries in the credit-investment process is that loans are allocated according to political considerations or ties between bank managers and the corporate sector. This practice is problematic for two reasons: First, even if the central bank can create liquidity and the financial sector as a whole is thus not be constrained by a lack of base money, banks in developing countries are often weakly capitalized. Legal minimum capital-adequacy ratios hence limit the overall amount of loans provided by the financial sector.

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  • Mathematics in Action: An Introduction to Algebraic, Graphical, and Numerical Problem Solving, Fourth Edition, is intended to help college mathematics students gain mathematical literacy in the real world and simultaneously help them build a solid foundation for future study in mathematics and other disciplines.

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