Applying Scope You have seen in some of the examples that you can create a variable inside a method. The variable comes into existence at the point where a statement defines it, and subsequent statements in the same method can then use the variable.
Previous work on quantifier scope annotation focuses on scoping sentences with only two quantified noun phrases (NPs), where the quantifiers are restricted to a predefined list. It also ignores negation, modal/logical operators, and other sentential adverbials. We present a comprehensive scope annotation scheme. We annotate the scope interaction between all scopal terms in the sentence from quantifiers to scopal adverbials, without putting any restriction on the number of scopal terms in a sentence. ...
Detecting the linguistic scope of negated and speculated information in text is an important Information Extraction task. This paper presents ScopeFinder, a linguistically motivated rule-based system for the detection of negation and speculation scopes. The system rule set consists of lexico-syntactic patterns automatically extracted from a corpus annotated with negation/speculation cues and their scopes (the BioScope corpus).
We propose a formal system for representing the available readings of sentences displaying quantifier scope ambiguity, in which partial scopes may be expressed. We show that using a theory of scope availability based upon the functionargument structure of a sentence allows a deterministic, polynomial time test for the availability of a reading, while solving the same problem within theories based on the well-formedness of sentences in the meaning language has been shown to be NP-hard.
The paper shows that movement or equivalent computational structure-changing operations of any kind at the level of logical form can be dispensed with entirely in capturing quantifer scope ambiguity. It offers a new semantics whereby the effects of quantifier scope alternation can be obtained by an entirely monotonic derivation, without typechanging rules.
Certain restrictions on possible scopings of quantifiednoun phrases in natural language are usually expressed in terms of formal constraints on binding at a level of logical form. Such reliance on the form rather than the content of semantic interpretations goes against the spirit of compositionality. I will show that those scoping restrictions follow from simple and fundamental facts about functional application and abstraction, and can be expressed as constraints on the derivation of possible meanings for sentences rather than constraints of the alleged forms of those meanings. ...
We propose the use of regular tree grammars (RTGs) as a formalism for the underspeciﬁed processing of scope ambiguities. By applying standard results on RTGs, we obtain a novel algorithm for eliminating equivalent readings and the ﬁrst efﬁcient algorithm for computing the best reading of a scope ambiguity. We also show how to derive RTGs from more traditional underspeciﬁed descriptions.
We present the currently most efﬁcient solver for scope underspeciﬁcation; it also converts between different underspeciﬁcation formalisms and counts readings. Our tool makes the practical use of large-scale grammars with (underspeciﬁed) semantic output more feasible, and can be used in grammar debugging.
The paper presents an approach to ellipsis resolution in a framework of scope underspeciﬁcation (Underspeciﬁed Discourse Representation Theory). It is argued that the approach improves on previous proposals to integrate ellipsis resolution and scope underspeciﬁcation (Crouch, 1995; Egg et al., 2001) in that application processes like anaphora resolution do not require full disambiguation but can work directly on the underspeciﬁed representation. Furthermore it is shown that the approach presented can cope with the examples discussed by Dalrymple et al.
A formalism will be presented in this paper which makes it possible to realise the idea of assigning only one scope-ambiguous representation to a sentence that is ambiguous with regard to quantifier scope. The scope d e t e r m i n a t i o n results in e x t e n d i n g this representation with additional context and world k n o w l e d g e conditions. If there is no scope determining information, the formalism can work further with this scope-ambiguous representation. Thus scope information does not have to...
I propose that the characteristics of the scope disamhiguation process observed in the literature can be explained in terms of the way in which the model of the situation described by a sentence is built. The model construction procedure I present builds an event structure by identifying the situations associated with the operators in the sentence and their mutual dependency relations, as well as the relations between these situations and other situations in the context.
Traditional approaches to quantifier scope typically need stipulation to exclude readings that are unavailable to human understanders. This paper shows that quantifier scope phenomena can be precisely characterized by a semantic representation constrained by surhce constituency, if the distinction between referential and quantificational NPs is properly observed. A CCG implementation is described and compared to other approaches.
An algorithm for generating the possible quantifier scopings for a sentence, in order of preference, is outlined. The scoping assigned to a quantifier is determined by its interactions with other quantifiers, modals, negation, and certain syntacticconstituent boundaries. When a potential scoping is logically equivalent to another, the less preferred one is discarded. The relative scoping preferences of the individual quantifiers are not embedded in the algorithm, but are specified by a set of rules.
This paper describes an algorithm for generating quantifier scopings. The algorithm is designed to generate only logically non-redundant scopings and to partially order the scopings with a given :default scoping first. Removing logical redundancy is not only interesting per se, but also drastically reduces the processing time. The input and output formats are described through a few access and construction functions. Thus, the algorithm is interesting for a modular linguistic theory, which is flexible with respect to syntactic and semantic framework. ...
Chapter 4: Project scope management. After reading this chapter, you will be able to: Understand the importance of good project scope management, describe the process of planning scope management, discuss methods for collecting and documenting requirements to meet stakeholder needs and expectations,...
This version includes amendments resulting from IFRSs issued up to 31 December 2008. IFRIC 8 Scope of IFRS 2 was developed by the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee and issued by the International Accounting Standards Board in January 2006.
In this chapter, the learning objectives are: Understand the importance of scoping a project, how it defines what the project is to achieve, in what timeframe and at what cost; develop a comprehensive scope document and understand some of the practical techniques that can be applied in developing the content for the scope document; understand how the Scope Management Plan differs from the Scope document, and define and establish a process for change management in project environment.