Search constraints

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  • Association rules represent a promising technique to find hidden patterns in a medical data set. The main issue about mining association rules in a medical data set is the large number of rules that are discovered, most of which are irrelevant. Such number of rules makes search slow and interpretation by the domain expert difficult. In this work, search constraints are introduced to find only medically significant association rules and make search more efficient.

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  • Several years ago, Thomas’s English Muffins had an ad that proclaimed that the tastiness of their muffins was due to the presence of myriad “nooks and crannies.” The same may be said of the Internet. It is in the Internet’s nooks and crannies that the true “tastiness” often lies. Almost every Internet user has used Google and probably Yahoo!, and any group of experienced searchers could probably come up with a dozen or so sites that every one of them had used.

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  • Search algorithms aim to find solutions or objects with specified properties and constraints in a large solution search space or among a collection of objects. A solution can be a set of value assignments to variables that will satisfy the constraints or a sub-structure of a given discrete structure. In addition, there are search algorithms, mostly probabilistic, that are designed for the prospective quantum computer.

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  • This paper explores how the efficiency of Internet search is changing the way Americans find romantic partners. We use a new data source, the How Couples Meet and Stay Together survey. Results show that family and grade school have been steadily declining in their influence over the dating market for 60 years. In the past 15 years, the rise of the Internet has partly displaced not only family and school, but also neighborhood, friends and the workplace as venues for meeting partners. The Internet increasingly allows Americans to meet and form relationships with perfect strangers, i.e.

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  • In statistical machine translation, the generation of a translation hypothesis is computationally expensive. If arbitrary wordreorderings are permitted, the search problem is NP-hard. On the other hand, if we restrict the possible word-reorderings in an appropriate way, we obtain a polynomial-time search algorithm. In this paper, we compare two different reordering constraints, namely the ITG constraints and the IBM constraints.

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  • We investigate a series of graph-theoretic constraints on non-projective dependency parsing and their effect on expressivity, i.e. whether they allow naturally occurring syntactic constructions to be adequately represented, and efficiency, i.e. whether they reduce the search space for the parser. In particular, we define a new measure for the degree of non-projectivity in an acyclic dependency graph obeying the single-head constraint. The constraints are evaluated experimentally using data from the Prague Dependency Treebank and the Danish Dependency Treebank. ...

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  • Various kinds of scored dependency graphs are proposed as packed shared data structures in combination with optimum dependency tree search algorithms. This paper classifies the scored dependency graphs and discusses the specific features of the “Dependency Forest” (DF) which is the packed shared data structure adopted in the “Preference Dependency Grammar” (PDG), and proposes the “Graph Branch Algorithm” for computing the optimum dependency tree from a DF. This paper also reports the experiment showing the computational amount and behavior of the graph branch algorithm. ...

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  • Outline: Problem-solving agents, Problem types, Problem formulation, Example problems, Basic search algorithms. Replace letters by numbers from 0 to 9 such as no different letter is replaced by the same number and satisfying the following constraint.

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  • Backtracking = depth-first search with one variable assigned per node; variable ordering and value selection heuristics help significantly; forward checking prevents assignments that guarantee later failure; constraint propagation (e.g., arc consistency) does additional work to constrain values and detect inconsistencies; the CSPs representation allows analysis of problem structure.

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  • Databases and database systems are an essential component of life in modern society: most of us encounter several activities every day that involve some interaction with a database. For example, if we go to the bank to deposit or withdraw funds, if we make a hotel or airline reservation, if we access a computerized library catalog to search for a bibliographic item, or if we purchase something online—such as a book, toy, or computer— chances are that our activities will involve someone or some computer program accessing a database.

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  • In real-world optimization applications, stakeholders require multiple and complex constraints, which are difficult to satisfy and make complicated to find satisfactory solutions. In the most cases, we face over-constrained optimization problems (no satisfactory solution can be found) because of the stakeholders’ multiple requirements and the various and complex constraints to be satisfied. Solving over-constrained problems is based on the relaxation of some constraints according to values of preferences in order to favour the satisfaction of the most relevant....

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  • This report was funded by Health Canada. It was conducted by a team of international Indigenous child health researchers, led by Dr. Janet Smylie at the Centre for Research on Inner City Health, St. Michael’s Hospital. The report draws upon on a systematic search of public health data, including scholarly articles at the national and provincial/territorial level. The report first addresses First Nations, Inuit, and Métis children’s health status and assessment in Canada.

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  • Differential evolution is one of the most recent global optimizers. Discovered in 1995 it rapidly proved its practical efficiency. This book gives you a chance to learn all about differential evolution. On reading it you will be able to profitably apply this reliable method to problems in your field. As for me, my passion for intelligent systems and optimization began as far back as during my studies at Moscow State Technical University of Bauman, the best engineering school in Russia. At that time, I was gathering material for my future thesis.

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  • This research report and the underlying field research and data processing would not have been feasible without the essential and invaluable contribution of the re- search staff of the Bunda College of Agriculture, University of Malawi, and without the contribution of many others in Malawi, at IFPRI, and at other institutions. Fore- most, we are grateful for the assistance of the staff of the Department of Rural De- velopment (DRD) who contributed to the successful implementation of the field sur- vey, data cleaning, and data analysis for the DRD/IFPRI Rural Finance Study.

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  • Physical water resource constraints make companies more susceptible to reputational risks. Declines in water availability and quality can increase competition for clean water. In water-scarce regions, tensions can arise between businesses and local communities, particularly in developing countries where local populations often lack access to safe and reliable drinking water. Community opposition to industrial water withdrawals and perceived or real inequities in use can emerge quickly and affect businesses profoundly.

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  • The Background section is based on neither a systematic review nor comprehensive literature searches. Some of the Evidence in smaller type may now be out of date. Where possible, information included in the previous Manual based on on-going reviews has been replaced by more recent material. Evidence is graded A (derived from randomised controlled trials - RCTs), B (observational studies) and C (professional consensus). These are broad categories and the quality of evidence within each category varies widely.

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  • The nonholonomic nature of the car-like robot is related to the assump- tion that the robot wheels roll without slipping. This implies the presence of a nonintegrable set of rst-order di erential constraints on the con guration variables. While these nonholonomic constraints reduce the instantaneous mo- tions that the robot can perform, they still allow global controllability in the con guration space. This unique feature leads to some challenging problems in the synthesis of feedback controllers, which parallel the new research issues arising in nonholonomic motion planning.

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  • Word alignment has an exponentially large search space, which often makes exact inference infeasible. Recent studies have shown that inversion transduction grammars are reasonable constraints for word alignment, and that the constrained space could be efficiently searched using synchronous parsing algorithms. However, spurious ambiguity may occur in synchronous parsing and cause problems in both search efficiency and accuracy. In this paper, we conduct a detailed study of the causes of spurious ambiguity and how it effects parsing and discriminative learning. ...

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  • Nonconcatenative constraints, such as the shuffle relation, are frequently employed in grammatical analyses of languages that have more flexible ordering of constituents than English. We show how it is possible to avoid searching the large space of permutations that results from a nondeterministic application of shuffle constraints. The results of our implementation demonstrate that deterministic application of shuffle constraints yields a dramatic improvement in the overall performance of a head-corner parser for German using an HPSG-style grammar.

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  • We describe an efficient bottom-up parser that interleaves syntactic and semantic structure building. Two techniques are presented for reducing search by reducing local ambiguity: Limited leftcontext constraints are used to reduce local syntactic ambiguity, and deferred sortal-constraint application is used to reduce local semantic ambiguity. We experimentally evaluate these techniques, and show dramatic reductions in both number of chart edges and total parsing time.

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