In the forest, there are small creatures that move almost
effortlessly beneath the ghostly pall of a moonless night,
slipping through dense vegetation, a jumble of hazards and
traps, and a menacing cabal of hungry predators poised to
pounce on the weak and the unwary. Instinctively, they
remain attuned to the threats posed by those who are bigger,
stronger, or more ruthless than they are.
The inclusion of a smooth function of time in a regression model introduces important sta-
tistical issues.We generally do not know precisely the complexity of the seasonal and long-term
trends in themortality time series or in the pollution time series. Therefore, a controversial issue
is determining how much smoothness we should allow for the smooth function of time. This
decision is critical because it determines the amount of residual temporal variation in mortality
that is available to estimate the air pollution effect.
An outstanding feature of the lower Mekong region is the dynamic energy of
its natural systems and how intimately tied most of the population is to that
seasonal force. Productivity in agriculture and fisheries, for example,
depends on annual floodplain inundation and nutrient dispersal. The
immense scale and impact of this natural cycle is well illustrated in the
annual flooding of Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia and the Mekong River Delta
which it shares with Vietnam.
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Large lakes are important because of their size and
ecological distinctiveness, as well as their economic and
cultural value. Optimal management of them requires a
proper understanding of anthropogenic impacts, both on
the lake ecosystems, as such and on the services they
provide for society. The specific structural and functional
properties of large lakes, e.g. morphology,
hydrography, biogeochemical cycles, and food-web
structure, are all directly related to their size.
Project planning involves answering two questions. Answering
the first question, “What do we need to do?” is generally called
requirements gathering. Answering the second question, “How
will we do it?” is called designing or specifying (see Figure 3-1).
A requirement is a carefully written description of a criterion
that the work is expected to satisfy. (For example, a
requirement for cooking a meal might be to make inexpensive
food that is tasty and nutritious.) Good requirements are easy to
understand and hard to misinterpret.
Land clearing is expected to be done mechanically, the technique being similar to that
at present used by CAMDEV for rubber. Trees are pushed over, raked into windrows
and burnt. On the Boa Plain an effective burn wil l be essential to facilitate drain
excavation. This may be difficul t with the heavy rainfalls and short dry season. The
timing of the clearing operations wil l be important. Felling one dry season and wind-
rowing and burning the next may help, as may the use of flame-throwing equipment
and fans to ignite the windrowed debris properly. Some pre-clearing drainage may also...
A long-standing tenet of distributed systems is that the strength of a distributed system can grow as more hosts partic-
ipate in it. Each participant may contribute data and computing resources (such as unused CPU cycles and storage) to
the overall system, and the wealth of the community can scale with the number of participants. A peer-to-peer (P2P)
distributed system is one in which participants rely on one another for service, rather than solely relying on dedicated
and often centralized infrastructure.
Moisture deficiencies occurring early in the crop cycle
may delay the maturity season and reduce yields.
Shortages later in the season often lower quality, as
well as yields. However, irrigation surplus, especially
late in the season, can reduce both the quality and the
post-harvest life of the crop.
Uneven or surplus irrigation, above the amount
required to replace evapotranspiration, causes nitrate
leaching below the root system and the ability of
the crop to recover from the nitrogen deficiency
The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships among returns of
various sub-indexes in the Istanbul Stock Exchange by using various methods. In
particular, we look at the extent to which various sub-indexes are cointegrated or
not by using three different methods. For the first two, Engle and Granger’s
(1987) single equation models and Johansen’s (1988) multivariate cointegration
methods are the among the most commonly used methods for assessing long-run
Briefly, we construct a measure of relative macroeconomic performance by first identifying
the global business cycle using a simple factor model. We calculate seasonally adjusted
quarter-over-quarter real GDP growth rates and extract the first principal component across
the 46 economies in our sample. This single factor explains around 40 per cent of the
variation in the average economy’s output, but with wide variation across economies. We
then use the residuals from the principal component analysis as the measure of an
economy’s idiosyncratic performance.