Type IV secretion systems (T4SS) are macromolecular assemblies used by
bacteria to transport material across their membranes. T4SS are generally
composed of a set of twelve proteins (VirB1–11 and VirD4). This repre-sents a dynamic machine powered by three ATPases.
The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a complex macromolecular machin-ery employed by a number of Gram-negative species to initiate infection.
Toxins secreted through the system are synthesized in the bacterial cyto-plasm and utilize the T3SS to pass through both bacterial membranes and
the periplasm, thus being introduced directly into the eukaryotic cytoplasm.
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Bacterial type IV secretion systems (T4SS) form supramolecular protein
complexes that are capable of transporting DNA or protein substrates
across the bacterial cell envelope and, in many cases, also across eukaryotic
target cell membranes.
Type III secretion systems of Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria allow the
injection of effector proteins into the cytosol of host eukaryotic cells. Cros-sing of the eukaryotic plasma membrane is facilitated by a translocon, an
oligomeric structure made up of two bacterial proteins inserted into the
host membrane during infection.
Inhibitors of the RAA System
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