The Green Book : Current Economic Trends
Overview 1. External economic situation 2. Private consumption 3. Facility investment 4. Construction investment 5. Exports and imports 6. Mining and manufacturing production 7. Service sector activity 8. Employment 9. Financial markets 9.1 Stock market 9.2 Exchange rate 9.3 Bond market 9.4 Money supply & money market 10. Balance of payments 11. Prices and international commodity prices 11.1 Prices 11.2 International oil and commodity prices 12. Real estate market 12.1 Housing market 12.2 Land market 13.
Chapter 6 - Understanding business cycles. This chapter describe the business cycle and its phases; describe the typical patterns of resource use fluctuation, housing sector activity, and external trade sector activity, as an economy moves through the business cycle; describe theories of the business cycle;...
Financial globalization could be described as a process in which global financial activities get increasingly integrated with the risk creation mechanism. This description emphasizes three points. First, financial globalization is not only a process in which financial activities transcend national borders, but also a process in which risks spread across the markets. Second, financial globalization is initiated by many micro-economic entities to seek profits and is driven by the integration of global financial markets. Third, it is a gradually deepening process with distinct phases....
One of the most important roles for social funds is to expand their ac-
tivities facilitating community participation and the interaction among
the state, the private sector, and grassroots communities, which in turn
enhances the sustainability of investments. Sustainability of investments
is an important factor, especially in poor communities. Social funds ac-
tivities can include training and advice on the development of programs
for poorer communities.
Associated General Contractors of America (AGC), the leading national construction
trade association representing both the public and private sectors, for each dollar spent on
new construction, a total of $11 in economic activity is generated across all industries and
other services. Since December 2003, the cumulative increase in the prices of inputs used
in construction (45%) has been more than double the increase in the consumer price
index (19%), as shown in Figure 1.1.
This Decree regulates the conditions for investment pursuant
to all forms of direct investment in the post and telecom
sector and provides other particular provisions applicable to
administration of post and telecom project works for
The World Bank Institute was established by the World Bank in 1955 to train officials con-cerned with development planning, policymaking, investment analysis, and project imple-mentation in member developing countries. At present the substance of WBI’s work empha-sizes macroeconomic and sectoral policy analysis.
Within this setting of a dynamic, private marketing system, the role of the Federal Government is
to help keep the marketing of agricultural commodities flowing in an orderly and efficient
manner, to promote effective distribution, to eliminate speculation and waste, and to stabilize the
marketing of agricultural commodities. A brief summary of current programs and activities is
given below. However, it must be realized that as the marketing system continues to evolve,
there will be corresponding changes in the programs, services or activities of the Federal
Women's involvement in the formal sector has mainly been urban-based, as civil servants in
the health and education sectors, where they had a sizeable presence before the conflict. This
was severely disrupted by the strong restrictions on female employment during the Taliban
period. Currently, close to one-third of all teachers are female, while an estimated 40% of all
basic health facilities lack female staff, a clear constraint to delivering basic services (health, in
particular) to women.
It is widely acknowledged that over the last 30 years or so we have
experienced a dramatic increase in the globalisation of economic activity.
International trade, cross-border investment, portfolio capital flows
and migration have all increased. As a consequence economies have
become more open and more interdependent. Because economies have
become more ‘joined-up’, national welfare has become more sensitive to
events and developments beyond national frontiers, which is one of the
reasons why globalisation has become a controversial issue.
industry spending, analysis of the economic impacts of this activity, and
projections of future drilling, natural gas production, and related economic impacts (Considine,
et al., 2009, 2010). Unlike the previous studies, however, this report estimates the impact
Marcellus production has on prices for natural gas and expenditures for natural gas and
electricity in Pennsylvania. This report also presents an analysis of labor market and sales tax
data that affirms the economic stimulus provided by the Marcellus industry.
fast pace. As part of the structural adjustment programmes of the late 1980s and early
1990s Bangladesh undertook a number of initiatives towards trade liberalisation and trade
promotion to stimulate exports and encourage investment in export-oriented activities.
The major objective of these reforms was removal of anti-export bias, introduction of
incentives for exports and facilitation of participation in global labour market.
Most small to medium-sized businesses struggle with marketing. The marketing function is often treated as a cost center--ad hoc activities that don’t provide measurable results that can be tracked to the bottom line. This e-book defines our Strategic Marketing Process that businesses can use to standardize their daily, monthly and annual revenue-generating activities. It covers more than just “traditional” marketing and ties together all go-to-market business activities: strategic planning, financial planning and measurement, creative development, marketing execution and sales.
Chemical precipitation and complexation are primarily important for the inorganic species.
The formation of coordination complexes is typical behaviour of transition metals, which
provide the cation or central atom. Ligands include common inorganic anions such as Cl
as well as organic molecules such as amino acids. Such
complexation may facilitate the transport of metals.
Biodegradation is a reaction process mediated by microbial activity (a biotic reaction).
Improving health outcomes through strengthened platforms and systems is at the core of the Initiative. This vision
of sustainable progress is only possible thanks to the demonstrable improvements in the health sector over the past
decade. Less than ten years ago, neither the woman nor her two children in our story would have stood a chance of
survival. At that time, a woman in her condition could not have hoped to access life-sustaining HIV treatment, let alone
the services that would prevent her child from being infected by HIV.
When considering supply side factors, we study characteristics of the financial sector that would
influence the speed of adoption of mutual funds. We examine the effect of bank concentration,
restrictions placed on banks to enter the securities business, the number of distribution channels available
for funds, the presence of an explicit deposit insurance system for banks, and the time and cost to set up a
new fund. We find that nations that restrict banks from entering the securities business have smaller
equity and bond fund sectors. In addition, countries with a...
It is noted that an appropriate legal judicial framework is essential to governance and progress in all countries. It is also an essential ingredient in any private sector development programme. Thus at the request of its borrowers, especially in Africa, the World Bank has actively promoted and supported programmes to improve such frameworks since the 1980s. The book describes the legal and judicial reform programmes in African countries.
These Emerging Conclusions offer a preliminary analysis of the findings of four reports
from the Economies of Conflict policy research series, a project of Fafo’s Programme
for International Co-operation and Conflict Resolution (PICCR). These
reports are the first to emerge from the series, which examines the links between
certain private sector activity and armed conflict.
This report does not propose to enter the discussions on financing and investment levels that will be
needed to support green growth such as is done by the IEA (2010a) for the energy sector, but rather will
look at where required flows may come from and how financial instruments such as green bonds might be
used to shift flows to support green growth. However, for illustrative purposes it is useful to examine the
ranges of estimates that are quoted.
Over time, social funds have proven that they effectively can coordinate
among entities, channel resources, develop social infrastructure, pro-
mote the participation of local authorities and the community, and inte-
grate the private sector and civil society in their programs. Their trans-
parency in operations is widely acknowledged and has resulted in
financial and technical support from international entities. Impacts of
social funds are commensurate with the budgets that are allocated to