At first glance, the cinema would seem to be remote from the undercover world of
the surreptitious observation of an unknowing and unwilling victim. What is seen of
the screen is so manifestly shown. But the mass of mainstream film, and the
conventions within which it has consciously evolved, portray a hermetically sealed
world which unwinds magically, indifferent to the presence of the audience,
producing for them a sense of separation and playing on their voyeuristic phantasy.
Investor base: about 70 percent of private bonds were purchased by banks in 2011. Their
participation has increased further recently partly because they have faced constraints in
expanding consumer loans given increased risk and higher cost in the sector, and therefore
have sought alternative higher-yield investment instruments.
Liquidity in the secondary
market is very limited as many banks tend to hold private bonds until maturity. Retail
investors’ participation remains low (see Figure 11). ...
On the afternoon and
evenings of September 21 –
22, 2012, Gravis Marketing, a
non-partisan research firm,
and Capitol Correspondent
conducted a survey of 765
likely voters in Colorado
regarding their likely vote for
a given presidential
candidate. The poll carries a
margin of error of 3.4%.
Overall, among likely voters,
Obama holds a 4.7% lead at
50.2% compared to Obama’s
45.5%, with 4.3% of likely
voters still undecided.
The group of undecided
voters is likely larger than
4.3%, given that another
Through efforts by the Ministry of Commerce, together with the cooperation of the
United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and several other development
partners under the framework of the Diagnostic Trade Integration Strategy in 2007,
19 commodities and services subsectors with high export potential and strong
contribution to human development were identified. The list was submitted to the
Government of Cambodia for action. The rubber industry ranked among the top five
sectors with high export potential and medium-high contribution to human
This document is one of several white papers that summarize readily available information on control techniques and measures to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from specific industrial sectors.
The principal pollutants from the transport sector responsible for adverse health effects
include lead, various types of particulate matter, ozone (formed from atmospheric reactions of
oxides of nitrogen [Nox] and volatile organic compounds [VOCs]), various toxic VOCs, nitrogen
dioxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia and sulphur dioxide. However, the proportion of these
various pollutants attributable to the transport sector varies significantly across different cities, as
indicated by the table below.
This report is intended as a review of the transport sector’s contribution to local and
global air pollution, and presents strategic and tactical methods of combating the problem in an
environment of sustainable development and economic growth. The report examines the origins
of–and damages due to–air pollution from transport, assesses the underlying causes, surveys the
principal strategic approaches that are being applied to the problem, and examines the various
mechanisms of intervention available.
Official policies for SME development can be evaluated against their impact upon enterprise culture,
start-up, survival and growth of SMEs, and stakeholder empathy. Each of these criteria feeds off the others.
Enterprise culture will be strong where there are high rates of SME growth. Where SMEs are dominant
features in the local and regional economic and social environment, stakeholders themselves will be
influenced and will adjust their behaviour accordingly.
This template of culture and business and stakeholder development may be used in very different
In addition to SME policies, many countries have adopted small business legislative acts, including
such countries with economies in transition as Russia, Hungary, Poland, the Czech Republic and Bulgaria.
Within the national framework, acts may specifically target the local level, as in the case of the German
Länder. Their content varies but usually includes a declaration of support for small businesses, a definition
for public policy purposes and principles on which support for the sector will be based.
Seeking Innovative Ways to Eliminate the Pay Gap. The Department of Labor, in
conjunction with the National Equal Pay Task Force, issued an “Equal Pay App Challenge.” This
challenge invites software developers to use publicly available data and resources to create
applications that accomplish at least one of the following goals: provide greater access to pay
data broken down by gender, race, and ethnicity; provide interactive tools for early career
coaching; help inform negotiations; and promote online mentoring.
America in modern times has generally enjoyed stronger job growth—prior to the recent
recession—than have other advanced nations. Yet, confusion sets in when we try to
pinpoint the source of this vitality, partly because we have tended to focus on ―where the
jobs are‖ instead of how (and when) they are created and lost.
Despite being few in number, large publicly traded firms employ the most people. These
firms include major manufacturers, the established energy and IT companies, big
financial firms and chain retailers, and more.
Developed countries in lower latitudes will be more vulnerable - for example, water
availability and crop yields in southern Europe are expected to decline by 20% with a
2°C increase in global temperatures. Regions where water is already scarce will face
serious difficulties and growing costs.
The increased costs of damage from extreme weather (storms, hurricanes, typhoons,
floods, droughts, and heat waves) counteract some early benefits of climate change
and will increase rapidly at higher temperatures.
Countries should intensify efforts to measure and regularly monitor medicine prices
and availability, and adopt policy measures to address the issues identified. A range
of policy options are available to address issues of high prices and low availability
of medicines. Low public sector availability can be addressed through improved
procurement efficiency, and adequate, equitable and sustainable financing. Medicine
prices can be reduced by eliminating duties and taxes on medicines and promoting
the use of quality-assured generic medicines.
Before embarking on policy reforms to improve access, national policy-makers need to have
a clear understanding of the factors that are contributing to high prices and poor avail-
ability; this will help ensure that their response is tailored to the national context. Table 1.3
lists a number of possible policy options and specific actions that are open to governments
for reducing prices and improving availability.
For example, a decision must be
taken on whether to include cases for which the most valid basis of diag-
nosis is solely clinical. A decision should also be taken regarding cases
registered on the basis of a death certificate only (DCO), for whom no
information is available on the date of diagnosis of the cancer. The most
usual practice is to omit these cases from the analysis, but if they repre-
sent a large proportion of registrations, it may be better to present two
survival analyses, one including DCO cases and another excluding them.
To address some of the challenges described above, the WHO/HAI Project on Medicine
Prices and Availability has initiated a set of activities to strengthen policy guidance on
issues relating to medicine prices, availability and affordability, with a specific focus on the
needs of low- and middle-income countries. These include a series of in-depth reviews on
policies and other interventions to manage medicine prices, increase availability and make
medicines more affordable.
Medicine availability and prices in both public and private sectors are key indicators
of access to treatment. Surveys of medicine prices and availability, conducted using
a standard methodology, have shown that poor medicine availability, particularly
in the public sector, is a key barrier to access to medicines. Public sector availability
of generic medicines is less than 60% across WHO regions, ranging from 32% in
the Eastern Mediterranean Region to 58% in the European Region. Private sector
availability of generic medicines is higher that in the public sector in all regions.
From the lowest-budget, most formally audacious or politically radical
to the quirky, the offbeat, the cultish and the more conventional, the
independent sector has thrived in American cinema in the past two
decades, producing a body of work that stands out from the dominant
Hollywood mainstream and that includes many of the most distinctive
ﬁlms to have appeared in the USA in recent years. It represents a
challenge to Hollywood, although also one that has been embraced
by the commercial mainstream to a substantial extent.
To paraphrase a good friend of mine in the public relations business, “Why
this book? Why now?” It’s a fair question to ask when you consider that
there are so many investment-related books available, and some of them
are quite good, even invaluable. So, yet another book about investing had
better have something to contribute to the discussion. I believe this book
does for several reasons.
The criteria used to assess measurements are summarised in Table 2.1. Full details are
not presented here but have been documented and are available on request (Appendix 2).
On the basis of the assessment, proposals were presented in December, January, March
and April and reviewed by all project participants (steering group, expert group, project
The wide range of interests and responsibilities of participants meant that an element of
compromise was essential, given realistic expectations of resource availability.