When the print edition became out-of-print, we applied for the return of copyright and released the book in this
electronic format. We removed the more dated material, such as boxed insert examples of the use of the Internet,
but otherwise essentially left the book as is because we believe the fundamental ideas are still relevant.
We seek the support of the adopting community to refresh this book. If you have some suggestions for revision,
then please contact the chapter editor.
Secure Socket Layer Protocol (SSL)
Designed by Netscape in 1994
To protect WWW applications and electronic transactions
Transport layer security protocol (TLS)
A revised version of SSLv3
Two major components:
Record protocol, on top of transport-layer protocols
Handshake protocol, change-cipher-spec protocol, and alert protocol; they reside between application-layer protocols and the record protocol
The use and disclosure of patient medical information originally was protected by a patchwork of state laws, leaving gaps in the protection
of patients’ privacy and conﬁdentiality. The U.S. Congress recognized the need for national patient record privacy standards in 1996 when
they enacted the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA). This law encouraged electronic transactions to lower
health care costs, but also required new safeguards to protect the security and conﬁdentiality of that information.
When businesses need to raise money (called 'capital'), more laws come into play. A highly complex set of laws and regulations govern the offer and sale of investment securities (the means of raising money) in most Western countries. These regulations can require disclosure of a lot of specific financial and other information about the business and give buyers certain remedies. Because "securities" is a very broad term, most investment transactions will be potentially subject to these laws, unless a special exemption is available....
As noted at the beginning, it is impossible to enumerate all of the types of laws and regulations that impact on business today. In fact, these laws have become so numerous and complex, that no business lawyer can learn them all, forcing increasing specialization among corporate attorneys. It is not unheard of for teams of 5 to 10 attorneys to be required to handle certain kinds of corporate transactions, due to the sprawling nature of modern regulation.
E-commerce provides immense capability for connectivity through buying and selling activities all over the world. During the last two decades new concepts of business have evolved due to popularity of the Internet, providing new business opportunities for commercial organisations and they are being further influenced by user activities of newer applications of the Internet. Business transactions are made possible through a combination of secure data processing, networking technologies and interactivity functions....
The most common Internet payment method for the business-to-consumer segment of
electronic commerce is credit cards. However, the security of data transmitted over the
Internet has been a major concern for customers. At present most companies use SSL
(Secure Socket Layer) protocol to provide security and privacy. This protocol provides
consumers a means to encrypt their order information. While providing a basic level of
security this protocol has been breached and does not enjoy a high level of consumer
The overwhelming expansion of the internet is today being accompanied with
a large increase of ﬁnancial activities and transactions that are conducted on-
line. A few minutes navigation on the internet allows to realize the existence of
electronic cash systems,payment protocols,auctions,lotteries,digital casinos
and gambing systems. The sometimes crucial importance and often large inter-
est around such transactions raises several concerns about the security and the
privacy of the information that users and organizations are willing to use on a