Over the last couple of years, manufacturers have produced some
incredibly sophisticated wireless networking equipment. Consumers’
ongoing demand for low-cost, high-speed, easy-to-use networking
gear has forced hardware manufacturers to continually refine their
designs. Engineers have produced tiny devices that use very little
power to perform amazing feats of ingenuity, producing them on such
a large scale that the cost is staggeringly low.
Enterprise network architectures are in a constant state of flux, and due to a lack of
resources and knowledgeable security expertise, some businesses are unable to
maintain ongoing security best practices that include proactive security planning and
Because today's security threats are so stealthy, it is often difficult to impossible to
perform root cause analysis to determine how a breach or potential breach event
Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM) was the ﬁrst serious eﬀort to secure Internet
mail. The Internet Resources Task Force (IRTF) Privacy and Security Research
Group (PSRG) did the initial design. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
PEM Working Group continued development for three years, resulting in a four-
part Proposed Internet Standard published in early 1993    . PEM
is a broad standard suite, it provides encryption, authentication, message integrity
and key management. PEM supports both symmetric and asymmetric (public-
key) key management schemes.
Note that we have made an effort to discover public sources
that may document or otherwise describe the new
technologies in Windows Vista. In some cases, however,
we may have overlooked these sources or new sources may
have been published since this paper was written. It is not
our intent to mislead the reader or to provide incomplete
Symantec evaluated the security of the network stack...
Over the last ten years, the impact of wireless communications on
the way we live and do business has been surpassed only by the impact
of the Internet. Cell phones, pagers, and wireless Personal Digital
Assistants (PDAs) have become so commonplace in our lives that it is
easy to forget that ten years ago, they were a rarity.
Wireless Sensor Networks hold the promise of delivering a smart communication
paradigm which enables setting up an intelligent network capable of handling
applications that evolve from user requirements. With the recent technological
advances of wireless sensor network, it is becoming an integral part of our lives.
However, due to the nature of wireless sensor networks, researchers face new
challenges related to the design of algorithms and protocols.
Our goal is to provide privacy and integrity to the data, to authenticate the sender, to prevent replay attacks and
to prevent trafﬁc analysis; consequently, the entire communication is encrypted (with one exception which will be
explained). All communications consist of a preamble, header and payload. The format of all communications
(sensor nodes and the base station) consist of a preamble, header and payload. The preamble is empty if the
communication originates from the base station and is directed to a sensor, otherwise it contains the address of the