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  • In this Chapter we focus on the field-theoretical description of the inflationary phase of the early universe and its post-inflationary dynamics (reheating and particle production) in the context of supergravity, based on the original papers (1–10). To begin with, let us first introduce some basics of inflation.

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  • Concept taxonomies offer a powerful means for organizing knowledge, but this organization must allow for many overlapping and fine-grained perspectives if a general-purpose taxonomy is to reflect concepts as they are actually employed and reasoned about in everyday usage. We present here a means of bootstrapping finely-discriminating taxonomies from a variety of different starting points, or seeds, that are acquired from three different sources: WordNet, ConceptNet and the web at large.

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  • This updated edition of Improving Outcomes in Breast Cancer is based on the Manual published by the Department of Health in 1996. Additional material, based on recent reviews of research evidence and discussions by a reconstituted Editorial Group, has been inserted in a larger font size (12 point as opposed to 10 point) so that it can be distinguished from earlier text. In the original guidance references were given at the end of each section, these have been retained in this document. For the updated material footnotes have been used throughout the text to avoid confusion....

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  • A coffeepot that was connected to the Internet (before it was even called the Internet) and which provided information about its status (long before there was Twitter). In 1991, researchers at Cambridge University shared a single coffeepot among several floors. The researchers were frustrated by the fact that they would often climb several flights of stairs, only to find the coffeepot empty. They set up a videocamera that broadcast a still image to their desktops about three times per minute — enough to determine the level of coffee in the glass pot.

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  • Insurance companies are using social media to increase visibility, enhance familiarity, develop relationships and build trust. Perhaps, presently, the primary advantage of using social media is to generate exposure. Another key use of social media by the insurance industry is to provide customer service in order to build and maintain relationships with consumers (see Appendix D for examples). The insurance industry has built its foundation on networking and building a good reputation.

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  • Both Planned Parenthood and the alternative sites we interviewed typically had relationships with other local health care providers. Thus, changes that affect one set of clinics, like Planned Parenthood, may have repercussions for other providers in the communities. Clinics often refer patients for care at other facilities if they cannot provide the services themselves. For example, if a woman is diagnosed with diabetes in a WHP exam at a family planning clinic, she would be referred to a community health center or public primary care clinic for further follow- up and care.

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  • They specifically identify policy issues for facilitating adoption of desirable agroforestry practices and gradual diminution of undesirable policies. In Chapter Seven, Msuya et al. use the Tanzanian agroforestry development context to explore how existing national policy and institutional setups facilitate or constrain development of agroforestry policies and suggest the available options for developing agroforestry policy. In the last chapter, Degrande et al.

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  • Molecular markers from the transcribed region of the genome can offer potential for various applications in plant genotyping as they reveal polymorphisms that might be directly related to gene function. A novel marker system called Start Codon Targeted Polymorphism (SCoT) was described by Collard & Mackill (2009b), based on the observation that the short conserved regions of plant genes are surrounded by the ATG translation start codon (Sawant et al., 1999). The technique uses single primers designed to anneal to the flanking regions of the ATG initiation codon on both DNA strands.

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  • The Directive's main aim is to ensure that the authority giving the primary consent (the 'competent authority') for a particular project makes its decision in the knowledge of any likely significant effects on the environment. The Directive, therefore, sets out a procedure that must be followed for certain types of project before they can be given 'development consent'. This procedure, known as Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), is a means of drawing together, in a systematic way, an assessment of a project's likely significant environmental effects.

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  • The availability of crop insurance for a particular crop in a particular region is an administrative decision made by USDA. The decision is made on a crop-by-crop and county-by-county basis, based on farmer demand for coverage and the level of risk associated with the crop in the region, among other factors. In areas where a policy is not available, farmers may request that RMA expand the program to their county. The process usually starts with a pilot program in order for RMA to gain experience and test the program components before it becomes more widely available.

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  • While the resulting American health care model proved a clever way to ensure that the money would roll in from patients, employers, and government, it contained a flaw that is proving fatal. The flaw is that health care consumers have been removed from par- ticipating in decisions regarding their care. Our approach to health insurance ignores the important role consumers play in controlling costs and enhanc- ing quality. Dr. Gorman found that people who pay for their own care cut utilization by 10% to 30% with no discernable effect on health.

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  • Co-cyprindiol (ethinylestradiol and cyproterone acetate; Dianette®, Clairette®) is indicated primarily for acne or hirsutism but it is also contraceptive and concerns have been raised about fetal exposure to cyproterone acetate. The SPC for Dianette29 advises that pregnancy must be excluded before treatment is begun, and states that animal studies have revealed that feminisation of male fetuses may occur if cyproterone acetate is administered during the phase of embryogenesis at which differentiation of the external genitalia occurs.

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  • The Commission is keen to assume leadership at the international level on this debate and will seek close co-operation from its global partners within the Financial Stability Board and the G20. Audit, alongside supervision and corporate governance, should be a key contributor to financial stability as it provides assurance on the veracity of the financial health of all companies. This assurance should reduce the risks of misstatement, and in doing so, reduce the costs of failure that would otherwise be suffered by the company's stakeholders as well as by the broader society.

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  • Having discussed robustness, Section IV turns to three extensions of our baseline results. First, we check whether the baseline results differ depending on whether the fiscal consolidation reflects changes in government spending or changes in revenue. The results suggest that fiscal multipliers were, on average, underestimated for both sides of the fiscal balance, with a slightly larger degree of underestimation associated with changes in government spending. Second, we examine forecast errors for the unemployment rate and for the components of GDP.

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  • In addition to holding title to property or having the right of beneficial use through a fideicomiso, there are other ways to enjoy the use of real property in Mexico, including leasing property and participating in time shares. With regard to leasing, there are no restrictions that prevent foreign individuals or entities from leasing property in Mexico. Unlike American law, the Mexican Civil Code places limits on the duration of real property leases.

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  • The markets for open-end and closed-end funds provide an indication of the general development and trends of investment in real assets. The Verband für Geschlossene Fonds (VGF) estimates that the assets of closed-end funds in Germany are EUR 199 bn (as at 2011). EUR 99 bn of this is invested as equity capital. In 2011, EUR 9.9 bn passed into real assets through closed-end funds in Germany (down 8% yoy, see Fig. 5). The volume has considerably declined since the start of the financial and economic crisis and, since 2009, has been at a low level. Last year, private investors...

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  • Second, the prospects for major child health reform will diminish as resources become increasingly scarce.Health care spending that is already hitting the “high- water mark” of 16 percent of U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) and predictably increasing in the face of the next wave of genomics-driven technological innova- tions will be swamped by the approaching “Silver Tsunami.

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  • Priority-setting approaches in the area of health have slighted SRH concerns. A disease-oriented approach to health priority setting has not recognized the importance of preventing unintended pregnancies. The consequences of these extend beyond the direct individual disability concerns to social participation, familial health and complex empowerment issues. Returns to investments in SRH are, therefore, difficult to assess and often omitted from policy dialogues.

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  • From the authorities’ perspective, the trade-off between financial stability and efficiency will vary depending on a country’s status as home or host to cross-border banking groups. Home authorities might prefer a cross-border bank structure with stricter firewalls across parts of the group (the subsidiary model) when their banks expand into countries with weak economies and a risky business environment.

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  • A number of companies operate bonus and performance plans simulta- neously. Differences in earnings definitions and target horizons of these two plans make it difficult to identify their combined effect on managers' account- ing decisions. I therefore limit the study to firms whose only remuneration explicitly related to earnings is bonuses. Fox (1980) ...

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