Vector seed selection was applied to the aforementioned eigenspace images, or multi-
spectral images, to obtain initial seeds. The algorithm of seeded region growing was further
adopted to divide the multi-spectral images into many small regions. The algorithm of
region merging was employed to merge similar regions as well as to combine smaller
regions with the nearest neighboring regions.
The troponin complex plays an essential role in the thin filament regulation
of striated muscle contraction. Of the three subunits of troponin, tropo-nin I (TnI) is the actomyosin ATPase inhibitory subunit and its effect is
released upon Ca
binding to troponin C.
Referred Pain from Visceral Disease
Diseases of the thorax, abdomen, or pelvis may refer pain to the posterior portion of the spinal segment that innervates the diseased organ. Occasionally, back pain may be the first and only manifestation. Upper abdominal diseases generally refer pain to the lower thoracic or upper lumbar region (eighth thoracic to the first and second lumbar vertebrae), lower abdominal diseases to the midlumbar region (second to fourth lumbar vertebrae), and pelvic diseases to the sacral region.
Paraneoplastic myelitis may present with upper or lower motor neuron symptoms, segmental myoclonus, and rigidity. This syndrome can appear as the presenting manifestation of encephalomyelitis and may be associated with SCLC and serum anti-Hu, anti-CV2/CRMP5, or anti-amphiphysin antibodies. Paraneoplastic myelopathy can also produce several syndromes
characterized by prominent muscle stiffness and rigidity.
Diseases of the striated muscle often also involve the cervical part of the esophagus, in addition to affecting the oropharyngeal muscles. Clinical manifestations of the cervical esophageal involvement are usually overshadowed by those of the oropharyngeal dysphagia.
Diseases of the smooth-muscle segment involve the thoracic part of the esophagus and the LES. Dysphagia occurs when the peristaltic contractions are weak or absent or when the contractions are nonperistaltic. Loss of peristalsis may be associated with failure of LES relaxation.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion mutations accumulate with age in tissues of a variety of species. Although the relatively low calculated abundance of these deletion mutations in whole tissue homogenates led some investigators to suggest that these mutations do not have any physiological impact, their focal and segmental accumulation suggests that they can, and do, accumulate to levels suﬃcient to aﬀect the metabolism of a tissue.