Selective argument

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  • The purpose of this collection is to present some of the diversity of ideas and studies about species that can be classifi ed as “ecosystem engineers.” As with any developing concept, we fi nd disagreement about the meaning and usefulness of this term in the literature and among ourselves. The idea for the book arose in a National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS) working group designed to develop models of ecosystem engineering species.

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  • The computation of selectional preferences, the admissible argument values for a relation, is a well-known NLP task with broad applicability. We present L DA - SP, which utilizes LinkLDA (Erosheva et al., 2004) to model selectional preferences. By simultaneously inferring latent topics and topic distributions over relations, L DA - SP combines the benefits of previous approaches: like traditional classbased approaches, it produces humaninterpretable classes describing each relation’s preferences, but it is competitive with non-class-based methods in predictive power. ...

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  • This paper describes the application of so-called topic models to selectional preference induction. Three models related to Latent Dirichlet Allocation, a proven method for modelling document-word cooccurrences, are presented and evaluated on datasets of human plausibility judgements. Compared to previously proposed techniques, these models perform very competitively, especially for infrequent predicate-argument combinations where they exceed the quality of Web-scale predictions while using relatively little data. ...

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  • This paper improves the use of pseudowords as an evaluation framework for selectional preferences. While pseudowords originally evaluated word sense disambiguation, they are now commonly used to evaluate selectional preferences. A selectional preference model ranks a set of possible arguments for a verb by their semantic fit to the verb. Pseudo-words serve as a proxy evaluation for these decisions.

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  • This paper explores methods to alleviate the effect of lexical sparseness in the classification of verbal arguments. We show how automatically generated selectional preferences are able to generalize and perform better than lexical features in a large dataset for semantic role classification. The best results are obtained with a novel second-order distributional similarity measure, and the positive effect is specially relevant for out-of-domain data. Our findings suggest that selectional preferences have potential for improving a full system for Semantic Role Labeling. ...

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  • This paper describes a COMIT program that proves the validity of logical arguments expressed in a restricted form of ordinary English. Some special features include its ability to translate an input argument into logical notation in four progressively refined ways, of which the first pertains to propositional logic and the last three to first-order functional logic; and its ability in many cases to select the "correct" logical translation of an argument, i.e., the translation that yields the simplest proof....

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  • A challenging problem in open information extraction and text mining is the learning of the selectional restrictions of semantic relations. We propose a minimally supervised bootstrapping algorithm that uses a single seed and a recursive lexico-syntactic pattern to learn the arguments and the supertypes of a diverse set of semantic relations from the Web. We evaluate the performance of our algorithm on multiple semantic relations expressed using “verb”, “noun”, and “verb prep” lexico-syntactic patterns. ...

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  • Despite its substantial coverage, NomBank does not account for all withinsentence arguments and ignores extrasentential arguments altogether. These arguments, which we call implicit, are important to semantic processing, and their recovery could potentially benefit many NLP applications. We present a study of implicit arguments for a select group of frequent nominal predicates. We show that implicit arguments are pervasive for these predicates, adding 65% to the coverage of NomBank.

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  • We report on the development of a new automatic feedback model to improve information retrieval in digital libraries. Our hypothesis is that some particular sentences, selected based on argumentative criteria, can be more useful than others to perform well-known feedback information retrieval tasks.

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  • For biomedical information extraction, most systems use syntactic patterns on verbs (anchor verbs ) and their arguments. Anchor verbs can be selected by focusing on their arguments. We propose to use predicate-argument structures (PASs), which are outputs of a full parser, to obtain verbs and their arguments. In this paper, we evaluated PAS method by comparing it to a method using part of speech (POSs) pattern matching. POS patterns produced larger results with incorrect arguments, and the results will cause adverse effects on a phase selecting appropriate verbs. ...

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  • This paper will focus on the semantic representation of verbs in computer systems and its impact on lexical selection problems in machine translation (MT). Two groups of English and Chinese verbs are examined to show that lexical selection must be based on interpretation of the sentence as well as selection restrictions placed on the verb arguments.

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  • There is a common belief, significantly shared by many beginning formal tertiary studies in education, that ‘education’ has a fixed meaning, and distinct aims, which can be unveiled either by turning up a dictionary or by consulting a favoured authority. So, in the very first lecture of every course I give, I stress that ‘education’ is a changing, contested and often highly personalised, historically and politically constructed concept. To illustrate this I read a few dictionary definitions of ‘education’, as well as a selected set of stated ‘aims of education’.

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  • Some programs train CHWs to provide care and support for people living with HIV/AIDS. Simple checklists and guidelines help CHWs identify sexually transmitted infections, malnutrition, complications during pregnancy, and early childhood illnesses, allowing them to counsel and refer the client to the proper facilities if necessary. Pathfinder CHWs, with a few exceptions, work entirely as volunteers. The majority of them are women, selected because of their respect in the community and their leadership abilities.

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  • Advocates of lower statutory tax rates argue that reduced rates would increase economic growth, increase saving and investment, and boost productivity. Skeptics of this view argue that higher tax revenues are necessary for debt reduction, that tax rates on high-income taxpayers are too low (i.e., they violate the “Buffett rule”), and that higher tax rates on high-income taxpayers would moderate increasing income inequality.

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  • Persuasive writing is the process of selecting, combining, arranging, and developing ideas taken from oral, written, or electronically produced texts for the purpose of arguing a point of view or convincing an audience to take action. Persuasive writing is often called argumentation.

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  • Optio Explicit on Dim o objWMIServic ce Dim o objNetAdapter r Dim s strComputer Dim s strAddress Dim arrIPA Address Dim arrSub bnetMask Dim colNe etAdapters Dim errEn nableStatic If WScript t.Arguments.Co ount = 0 Then Wscript t.Echo "Usage: ChangeIPAdd dress.vbs new_ _IP_address" WScrip pt.Quit End If strComputer = "xp2" strAddress = Wscript.Arg s guments.Item(0 0) arrIPAddre = Array(str ess rAddress) arrSubnetM Mask = Array(" " 0") Set objWM MIService = Ge etObject("winm mgmts:\\" & str rComputer & " "\root\cimv2") Set colNetA Adapters = obj jWMIService.E ExecQuery("Select...

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  • CONNECTING TO MYSQL WITH PHP AND SQL In both cases, the result of the query is stored in $stmt. Error messages can be accessed in the same way as with a PDO connection. However, instead of calling the errorInfo() method on the connection object, use it on the PDO statement like this: $error = $stmt-errorInfo(); if (isset($error[2])) { echo $error[2]; } To bind the results of a SELECT query to variables, each column needs to bound separately using the bindColumn() method before calling execute(). The bindColumn() method takes two arguments.

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  • The data from this large study provide a strong argument against the use of an arbitrary PSA threshold to select men for prostate biopsy. The aim of prostate biopsy is not to detect each and every prostate cancer. After all, the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial demonstrates that the majority of prostate cancers are in men with a normal PSA level. The aim of prostate biopsy is actually to detect those prostate cancers with the potential for causing harm.

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  • The selection of neo-institutional theory as theoretical lens for the dissertation rests on several arguments. 3 First, the theory bears significant potential to generate fresh insights into the strategy formation process (Mintzberg and Lampel, 1999; Hensmans, 2003). Second, it con- ceptualizes very well the environment, its actors, its creation, and its internal functioning (Scott, 2001).

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  • Because of this, unless a particular analysis or argument is specifically attributable to one author, there arc few references to competing analyses, or to the huge number of books and articles dealing with tense in English. However, a selective bibli¬ography listing some of the literature that we consider basic to the study of tense can be found at the end of the book.

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