Since the first edition of this handbook, semiconductor technology has gone through a continued
evolution of new devices and materials like never before. Wafer sizes continue to grow with most
of the new fabs equipped for 12-inch wafers. The changes are triggered by many considerations:
continued need to provide more functions at lower cost; technology features less than 1000 Å
requiring new processes, and exponential increase in the number of device elements.
The advances in ultra-large-scale integration (ULSI) technology mainly have been
based on downscaling of the minimum feature size of complementary metal-oxide
semiconductor (CMOS) transistors. The limit of scaling is approaching and there
are unsolved problems such as the number of electrons in the device’s active region.
If this number is reduced to less than 10 electrons (or holes), quantum fluctuation
errors will occur and the gate insulator thickness will become too small to block
quantum mechanical tunneling, which may result in unacceptably large leakage
Silicon carbide (SiC) is an interesting material that has found application in a variety of
industries. The two best known applications of this material are its use as an abrasive
material and its more recent use as a wide band gap semiconductor for high power,
high temperature electronic devices. The high hardness of this material, known for
many years, led to its use in machining tools and in other structural applications.
Hydrogenated amorphous silicon, a new form of a common element, is a
semiconductor that has come of age. Its scientific attractions include a
continuously adjustable band gap, a usable camer lifetime and diffusion
length, efficient optical transitions, and the capability of employing either nor
Furthermore, it can be fabricated very easily as a thin film by a technology
that not only inherently escapes the expenst: of crystal perfection but also
requires significantly smaller amounts of raw materials....
The book titled “Corrosion Resistance” has a significant meaning because the
terminology “Corrosion Resistance” is one of the most important indications of
materials under corrosion study and characterization.
The book has covered the state-of-the-art technologies, development, and research
progress of corrosion studies in a wide range of research and application fields. The
authors have contributed their chapters, each on their special field, on corrosion
characterization and corrosion resistance....
Silicon Carbide (SiC) and its polytypes have been a part of human civilization for a
long time; the technical interest of this hard and stable compound has been realized in
1885 and 1892 by Cowless and Acheson for grinding and cutting purpose, leading to its
manufacture on a large scale. The fundamental physical limitations of Si operation at
higher temperature and power are the strongest motivations for switching to wide
bandgap (WBG) semiconductors such as SiC for these applications.
This book addresses the engineering student and practising engineer. It
takes an engineering-oriented look at semiconductors. Semiconductors
are at the focal point of vast number of technologists, resulting in great
engineering, amazing products and unheard-of capital growth. The work
horse here is of course silicon. Explaining how semiconductors like silicon
behave, and how they can be manipulated to make microchips that
work—this is the goal of our book.
This ninth edition was introduced to bring the material up-to-date and to
render all of the diagrams to the same standard. Some of the information
from previous editions has been left out; either because it was obsolete
or because it is not relevant to modern electronics. Most students are
taught discrete component circuit analysis and design with silicon npn
transistors as the main active devices. Although a flexibility of approach
is important (i.e.
In accordance with the normal semiconductor manufacturing procedure, the microchip is produced on a so-called wafer. This is a slice of silicon, which may be 6 inches in diameter, upon which several hundred microchips are produced simultaneously by repeated doping, exposure, etching and washing of the surface. In the next stage of production, the microchips on the wafer are contacted using metal points and then each of the chips is individually tested for functionality.
Contactless Smart Cards
The ﬁrst plastic cards appeared in the USA as early as the beginning of the 1950s, when cheap PVC replaced cardboard. In the years that followed, plastic credit cards became widespread. Incidentally, the ﬁrst credit card was issued by Diners Club in 1950. The rapid development of semiconductor technology made it possible to integrate data memory and protective logic onto a single silicon chip in the 1970s.
This book provides excellent review on the techniques for fabrication aimed to specific
applications for current technology. A tremendous amount of work is presented on
different modeling and simulation based on the applied semiconductor physics of
carbon nanotubes. In the past decades, although carbon nanotubes have undergone massive research,
considering the success of silicon, it has, nonetheless, been difficult to appreciate the
potential influence of carbon nanotubes in current technology....
The development of a bipolar technology for integrated circuits (ICs) went hand in hand with the steady
improvement in semiconductor materials and discrete components during the 1950s and 1960s. Consequently,
silicon bipolar technology formed the basis for the IC market during the 1970s. As circuit
dimensions shrink, the MOSFET (or MOS) has gradually taken over as the major technological platform
for silicon ICs. The main reasons are the ease of miniaturization and high yield for MOS compared with
The confluence of market demand for greatly improved
compact power sources for portable electronics with the rapidly
expanding capability of micromachining technology has made
feasible the development of gas turbines in the millimeter-size
range. With airfoil spans measured in 100’s of microns rather
than meters, these “microengines” have about 1 millionth the
air flow of large gas turbines and thus should produce about 1
millionth the power, 10-100 W.
Although there is a variety of commercially available solid-state sensors, a little-known option is using a common silicon diode like the Fairchild Semiconductor 1N914. They are small and quite rugged as sensors go. And, since they cost only pennies apiece, they are definitely the cheapest option. We’re all aware that a common silicon diode has about a 0.5-V junction potential at room temperature.
Silicon technology continues to progress, but device scaling is rapidly
taking the metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) to its
limit. When MOS technology was developed in the 1960's, channel lengths
were about 10 micrometers, but researchers are now building transistors with
channel lengths of less than 10 nanometers. New kinds of transistors and
other devices are also being explored. Nanoscale MOSFET engineering
continues, however, to be dominated by concepts and approaches originally
developed to treat microscale devices...
Increased miniaturization of the integrated chip has largely been responsible
for the rapid advances in semiconductor device performance, driving the
industry’s growth over the past decade(s). Soon the minimum feature size
in a typical integrated circuit device will be well below 100 nm. At these
dimensions, interlayers with extremely low dielectric constants (k) are
imperative to reduce the cross-talk between adjacent lines and also enhance
device speed. State-of-the-art non-porous, silicon-based low-k dielectric
materials have k values on the order of 2.7....