Japanese business has changed tremendously in the past decade.
Once sacred institutions such as lifetime employment and
seniority - based promotion in the workplace have increasingly been
replaced by “ temp ” contracts and performance - based pay. During
Japan ’ s miracle growth years in the two decades following the
end of World War II, the nation ’ s schools churned out a veritable
“ soldier ” class of white - collared sarariman (salaried men) and OLs
(offi ce ladies) dedicated to building their country into an economic
superpower. And they succeeded.
The overall organizational structure of the Port Authority is heavily concentrated in
senior and middle management. This structural characteristic in large part is driven by
the long‐tenured nature of the employee workforce that has been promoted based on
seniority and not necessarily merit.
Promotion and separation from military service have been intertwined for the entire history of the oﬃcer corps of the United States, but cause and eﬀect have changed over time. Aside from periods of downsizing, the separation of some oﬃcers has always led to the promotion of others. Through World War II involuntary separation for age and tenure was seldom mandatory and promotion was based on seniority. As a result promotio