Sensitivity of measurement

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  • Thermal noise from optical coatings is a growing area of concern, and overcoming limits to the sensitivity of high-precision measurements by thermal noise is one of the greatest challenges faced by experimental physicists. In this timely book, internationally renowned scientists and engineers examine our current theoretical and experimental understanding. Beginning with the theory of thermal noise in mirrors and substrates, subsequent chapters discuss the technology of depositing coatings and state-of-the-art dielectric coating techniques used in precision measurement.

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  • Quantification of Drug Action the dose at which one-half of the group has responded. The dose range encompassing the dose-frequency relationship reflects the variation in individual sensitivity to the drug. Although similar in shape, a dose-frequency relationship has, thus, a different meaning than does a dose-effect relationship. The latter can be evaluated in one individual and results from an intraindividual dependency of the effect on drug concentration.

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  • Unfortunately, the adverse effects of transportation have a greater impact on the natural and human environment than either spatial proximity or telecommunications. The basic technology used in transportation causes emissions of pollutants which have been proved, or are believed, to damage human health and plant life and to upset sensitive ecosystem balances. As a result of transport’s contribution to local pollution–which, worldwide, is responsible for about 1.

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  • While it has been demonstrated that these materials have good sensitivity to polar VOCs, such as alcohols and acetone, 11,12 their rather poor response to nonpolar analytes has been viewed as a major drawback. In this report, we explored two ways to improve the sensor performance of regioregular polythiophene. The first approach is to add a second polymer at the end of the polythiophene chain to form a block copolymer. This second polymer interacts with the analytes in different ways, thus adding another dimensionality to the sensing response of the material.

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  • Using longitudinal data from a cohort of middle school students from a large school district, we estimate separate “value-added” teacher effects for two subscales of a mathematics assessment under a variety of statistical models varying in form and degree of control for student background characteristics.

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  • Stereopsis Stereoacuity is determined by presenting targets with retinal disparity separately to each eye using polarized images. The most popular office tests measure a range of thresholds from 800–40 seconds of arc. Normal stereoacuity is 40 seconds of arc. If a patient achieves this level of stereoacuity, one is assured that the eyes are aligned orthotropically and that vision is intact in each eye. Random dot stereograms have no monocular depth cues and provide an excellent screening test for strabismus and amblyopia in children.

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  • NOT MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE MIL-HDBK-17-4 Volume 4 of 4 21 September 1999 DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HANDBOOK COMPOSITE MATERIALS HANDBOOK VOLUME 4. METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES This handbook is for guidance only. Do not cite this document as a requirement. AMSC N/A AREA CMPS DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. .MIL-HDBK-17-4 FOREWORD 1. This handbook is approved for use by all Departments and Agencies of the Department of Defense. 2. This handbook is for guidance only. This handbook cannot be cited as a requirement.

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  • While the evidence documents significant use of accounting numbers in determining cash compensation, both the determinants of cash compensation and the importance of cash compensation in the overall incentive package exhibit significant time trends. Bushman, Engel, Milliron, and Smith (1998) document that over the 1971-95 period, firms have substituted away from accounting earnings toward other information in determining top executives’ cash compensation.

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  • There are several tasks where is preferable not responding than responding incorrectly. This idea is not new, but despite several previous attempts there isn’t a commonly accepted measure to assess non-response. We study here an extension of accuracy measure with this feature and a very easy to understand interpretation. The measure proposed (c@1) has a good balance of discrimination power, stability and sensitivity properties.

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  • A more sophisticated technique to measure portfolio risk is value-at-risk (VaR). Whereas a portfolio sensitivity analysis measures portfolio value changes for a specific interest rate change for all securities, VaR measures the maximum potential loss on a portfolio for a specified confidence level and a specified time period. For example, consider a portfolio manager who measures VaR at a 95 percent confidence level and for a 90-day time horizon.

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  • This second application of the global burden of disease framework permits an analysis of trends observed since the first application. The intervening period was clearly one of slow progress, impeded by the HIV/AIDS epidemic and setbacks in Eastern Europe. The volume is appropriately cautious in draw- ing inferences about disease-specific trends because of changes in data sources and, in some instances, improvements in approaches to measurement.

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  • As the first public database of indicators that consistently measure people’s use of financial products across economies and over time, the Global Findex database fills a big gap in the financial inclusion data landscape. The data set can be used to track the effects of financial inclusion policies globally and develop a deeper and more nuanced understanding of how people around the world save, borrow, make payments, and manage risk.

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  • As more users are connected to the Internet and conduct their daily activities electronically, computer users have become the target of an underground economy that infects hosts with malware or adware for financial gain. Unfortunately, even a single visit to an infected web site enables the attacker to detect vulnerabilities in the user’s applications and force the download a multitude of malware binaries.

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  • QDs play an important role mainly in the imaging and as highly fluorescent probes for biological sensing that have better sensitivity, longer stability, good biocompatibility, and minimum invasiveness. The fluorescent properties of QDs arise from the fact, that their excitation states/band gaps are spatially confined, which results in physical and optical properties intermediate between compounds and single molecules. Depending on chemical composition and the size of the core which determines the quantum confinement, the emission peak can vary from UV to NIR wavelengths (400–1350 nm).

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  • For some doctors in affluent countries the first question about prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) nowadays is whether to write a prescription for one of the statins (simvastatin, pravastatin, fluvastatin, atorvastatin, etc) which inhibit an early step of cholesterol biosynthesis in the body (see p 7). Tables are available to show whether the 5- or 10-year risk justifies the cost of long term statin medication, but the relation of diet and CHD is still of primary importance for the majority of people. What we eat is bound up with the aetiology of CHD.

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  • We use a machine learner trained on a combination of acoustic and contextual features to predict the accuracy of incoming n-best automatic speech recognition (ASR) hypotheses to a spoken dialogue system (SDS). Our novel approach is to use a simple statistical User Simulation (US) for this task, which measures the likelihood that the user would say each hypothesis in the current context. Such US models are now common in machine learning approaches to SDS, are trained on real dialogue data, and are related to theories of “alignment” in psycholinguistics.

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  • In this chapter, you will learn to: Explain how price elasticity of demand (E) is used to measure the responsiveness or sensitivity of consumers to a change in the price of a good, explain the role that price elasticity plays in determining how a change in the price of a commodity affects the total revenue (TR = P × Q) received, list and explain several factors that affect the elasticity of demand,...

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  • Chapter 6 - Elasticity and demand. In this chapter, you will learn to: Explain how price elasticity of demand (E) is used to measure the responsiveness or sensitivity of consumers to a change in the price of a good, explain the role that price elasticity plays in determining how a change in the price of a commodity affects the total revenue (TR = P × Q) received, list and explain several factors that affect the elasticity of demand,...

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  • The Information Technology Laboratory (ITL) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) promotes the U.S. economy and public welfare by providing technical leadership for the Nation’s measurement and standards infrastructure. ITL develops tests, test methods, reference data, proof of concept implementations, and technical analyses to advance the development and productive use of information technology.

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  • 10 Precision Manufacturing 10.1 10.2 10.3 Deterministic Theory Applied to Machine Tools Basic Definitions Motion Rigid Body Motion and Kinematic Errors • Sensitive Directions • Amplification of Angular Errors, The Abbe Principle 10.4 10.

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