Weeds severely affect crop quality and yield. Therefore, successful farming relies on their control by coordinated management approaches. Among these, chemical herbicides are of key importance. Their development and commercialization began in the 1940's and they allowed for a qualitative increase in crop yield and quality when it was most needed. This book blends review chapters with scientific studies, creating an overview of some the current trends in the field of herbicides.
The rain forest takes an immense breath and then exhales, once every four or
five years, as a major global weather pattern plays out, usually heralded by
El Nin˜o–Southern Oscillation. While this powerful natural cycle has occurred
for many millennia, it is during the past decade that both the climate of Earth
and the people living on it have had an increasing influence on the weather
pattern itself, with many biological consequences. In Southeast Asia, as also in
most of the Neotropics, El Nin˜o accompanies one of the most exuberant outpourings
of nature’s diversity.
Sepsis has been defined as a serious condition in which there is a systemic
inflammation secondary to an infectious process. This can progress to a level at which
it results in a complex disorder, leading to multiple organ failure and eventually
death. Although it has been well recognized as one of the top killers worldwide, its
incidence continues to rise dramatically with some studies showing approximately
1,400 daily deaths.
Some experts usually consider sepsis as one of the most challenging conditions
because of its multiple presentations and the variety of its complications. ...
Besides assembling a wide assortment of products, the wholesaler also may extend short-term
credit to buyers. Often he assists retailers in solving merchandising problems. Sometimes
wholesalers prepackage products.
Retailing is the final link in the distribution chain. Several hundred thousand retail foodstores
and additional thousands of department, dry goods, and cigar stores and other specialty stores
throughout the country satisfy day-to-day consumer requirements for food and other products of
There is a whole genre of “celebrity” biography that focuses on the
rich and famous, the influential, or the notorious, and within this
category an entire sub-genre devoted to movie-stars and other Hol-
lywood types. They can range from the sleazy and sensational to the
more complex, hefty literary film studies, or historical biography—
the latter varieties seeking to situate the biographical subjects in the
social, cultural, or literary context of the times in which they lived,
without sparing the gossip.
Socioeconomic status, poverty, and race have been found
to be correlated with ACSC rates [8-10]. Several studies
have examined the associations between ACSCs and
demographics using small areas of analysis (typically ZIP
code) and have found that ACSCs are higher in lowincome
areas and areas with higher concentrations of
racial and ethnic minorities [11,12]. The elderly population
has not been studied much in this context, because
they are thought to be relatively well-insured.
· Namibia is carrying out a phased testing and implementation of the SEEA approach to
environmental accounting. It is focused on several key natural resource sectors, and is
designed to answer such questions as how to allocate water among competing uses and
how land degradation affects the productivity of rangeland.
· The Netherlands routinely constructs the "National Accounting Matrix Including
Environmental Accounts" (NAMEA), an extended form of the national accounts
input/output matrix which tracks pollution emissions by economic sector.
It is not yet clear how exposure to low ambient concentrations of particulates might
produce the health effects observed in epidemiological studies and whether certain
attributes of particles may be more closely associated to these health effects.
The characteristics of particles that are being investigated for their roles in causing
health effects include metal content, particle size, and particles as carriers of other toxic
compounds (such as gases or biological toxins from bacteria and pollens etc.).
There are two main types
of brain cancer. Primary brain cancer starts
in the brain. Metastatic brain cancer starts
somewhere else in the body and moves to the
brain. According to the American Brain Tumor
Association, brain tumors are the most common
of the solid tumors in children, and the second
most frequent malignancy of childhood.
Brain tumors are the second leading cause of
cancer-related deaths in males under 40 and
the second leading cause of cancer-related
deaths in females under age 20.
Thus, the present work focuses mainly on the neural correlates of visual aesthetic
preference. Despite the limited scope of the results produced within this line of
research and the current absence of a solid grounding framework, there are already
several new studies being carried out, making an integrative framework much more
urgent. Thus, the main objective of the present work is to begin the construction
of this scaffolding by suggesting a series of testable hypotheses based on existing
A number of studies have presented machine-learning approaches to semantic role labeling with availability of corpora such as FrameNet and PropBank. These corpora deﬁne the semantic roles of predicates for each frame independently. Thus, it is crucial for the machine-learning approach to generalize semantic roles across different frames, and to increase the size of training instances.
The chemistry of bamboo is important in determining its utilization potential.
Several studies have investigated the chemical composition of bamboo. But systematic
and thorough research on a commercially important bamboo species is needed to
determine utilization potential for the products such as medium density fiberboard
(MDF). Most of previous studies provide either only general information of several
bamboo species or focuses on only one aspect of one species.
Issuance of Stability Bonds under joint and several guarantees would a priori lead to a
situation where the prohibition on bailing out would be breached. In such a situation, a
Member State would indeed be held liable irrespective of its 'regular' contributing key, should
another Member State be unable to honour its financial commitments. In this case, an
amendment to the Treaty would be necessary.
As insurgent threats evolve and assume new forms, the United States must also evolve in its ability to counter potentially prolonged threats in several parts of the world. Because of the potential for global reach in contemporary insurgencies, the ability to draw on lessons learned from past counterinsurgency (COIN)
The discovery that microRNAs (miRNAs) are synthesized as hairpin-con-taining precursors and share many features has stimulated the development
of several computational approaches for identifying new miRNA genes in
various animal species.
Over the years, several studies have been performed to analyse plant–patho-gen interactions. Recently, functional genomic strategies, including proteo-mics and transcriptomics, have contributed to the effort of defining gene
and protein function and expression profiles. Using these ‘omic’
approaches, pathogenicity- and defence-related genes and proteins
expressed during phytopathogen infections have been identified and enor-mous datasets have been accumulated.
This paper presents a comparative study of target dependency structures yielded by several state-of-the-art linguistic parsers. Our approach is to measure the impact of these nonisomorphic dependency structures to be used for string-to-dependency translation. Besides using traditional dependency parsers, we also use the dependency structures transformed from PCFG trees and predicate-argument structures (PASs) which are generated by an HPSG parser and a CCG parser.
In this paper we compare two grammar-based generation algorithms: the Semantic-Head-Driven Generation Algorithm (SHDGA), and the Essential Arguments Algorithm (EAA). Both algorithms have successfully addressed several outstanding problems in grammarbased generation, including dealing with non-monotonic compositionality of representation, left-recursion, deadlock-prone rules, and nondeterminism. We concentrate here on the comparison of selected properties: generality, efficiency, and determinism.
This paper, by Broadbent and Daly, identifies 44 instances of large fiscal adjustments over the last 35
years in OECD countries. Of these 44 adjustments, it identifies 11 cases of fiscal adjustment that
were accomplished primarily through cuts in spending. The study argues that these expansions were
considerably more robust than the expansions following tax adjustments. The paper argues that the
expenditure-driven fiscal adjustments led to sharply lower bond yields and strong surges in equity
Media and the arts are the vanguard in this world,
out in front, breaking new ground. Creative people
are inventing new forms of expression, experimenting
with them, and disseminating them. Not all new
forms are adopted, of course, but the drive to explore
and create is fueled by artists, musicians, and popular
culture. Researchers have begun to think about these
new forms of expression in the same way they might a
new language. Using the very language forms they are
studying, researchers work collaboratively to discover
and describe the nature of 21st century literacy.