Signal formation

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  • Signal processing plays a key role in the optimization of disc capacity together with system margins of the optical drive. For the new format, new modulation codes have been designed for the rewritable version (parity-preserving code) and the read-only version (combi-code). For bit-detection in the rewritable format, a nonrecursive algorithm with PRML-like performance is devised. Finally, a new ECC code, called the picket code, was designed in order to cope with multiple long burst errors, on top of the usual random errors of the channel...

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  • Since the 1990s, digital signals have been increasingly used not only in various industries and engineering equipments but also in everybody’s daily necessities. Mobile phones, TV receivers, music CDs, multimedia computing, etc, are the indispensable items in modern life, in which digital formats are taken as a basic form for carrying and storing information. The major reason for the advancement in the use of digital signals is the big leap forward in the popularization of microelectronics and computing technology in the past three decades.

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  • Psychiatric disorders represent a complex interaction between psychological, developmental, neurobiological, and genetic factors. This book focuses on the neurobiological elements of psychiatric conditions. In the last 30 years, much has been learned about the neuroanatomic, neurophysiological, neurochemical, and molecular elements that contribute to major psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia, drug dependence, anxiety disorders, major depression, bipolar disorder, and dementias.

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  • Loss of tumor suppressors contributes to numerous cancer types. Many, but not all, proteins encoded by tumor suppressor genes have antiproliferative activity and halt cell-cycle progression. In this chapter, we present three methods that have been utilized to monitor the antimitogenic action exerted by tumor suppressors. Tumor suppressor function can be demonstrated by colony formation assays and acquisition of the flat-cell phenotype.

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  • Ground vehicles can navigate using signals from external navigation systems such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) (Figure 1.1), or by using signals from internal devices such as a compass, an odometer, a gyroscope, an accelerometer, or a full-blown inertial navigation system (INS). In practice, the most reliable and accurate navigation is obtained by combining data from all available sources, including static databases such as a digitized map. This chapter will discuss many of these sources of navigation data, and methods for combining them....

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  • We live in a time when digital information plays a key role in various fields. Whether we look towards communications, industry, medicine, scientific research or entertainment, we find digital images to be heavily employed. The high volume of stored and transacted digital images, together with the increasing availability of advanced digital image acquisition and display techniques and devices, came with a growing need for novel, fast and intelligent algorithms for the digital manipulation of digital images....

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  • PAC is a perceptual audio coder that is flexible in format and bitrate, and provides highquality audio compression over a variety of formats from 16 kb/s for a monophonic channel to 1024 kb/s for a 5.1 format

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  • In digital signal processing, manipulating of the signal is defined as an essentially mathematical procedure, while the AD and DA converters, the front end and the final stage devices of the processing, include analog factor/limitation. Therefore, the performance of the devices determines the degradation fromthe theoretical performance defined by the format of the system.

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  • The scanning format of a video signal is a major determinant of general picture quality. Specifically, it determines such aspects as stationary and dynamic resolution, motion portrayal, aliasing, scanning structure visibility, and flicker. Various formats have been designed and standardized to strike a particular balance between quality, cost, transmission capacity, and compatibility with other standards.

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  • Video sources produce data at very high bit rates. In many applications, the available bandwidth is usually very limited. For example, the bit rate produced by a 30 frame/s color common intermediate format (CIF) (352288) video source is 73 Mbits/s. In order to transmit such a sequence over a 64 Kbits/s channel (e.g., ISDNline), we need to compress the video sequence by a factor of 1140. A simple approach is to subsample the sequence in time and space. For example, if we subsample both chroma components by 2 in each dimension, i.e.

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  • The scanning format of a video signal is a major determinant of general picture quality. Specifically, it determines such aspects as stationary and dynamic resolution, motion portrayal, aliasing, scanning structure visibility, and flicker.

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  • Despite the mixed signals, the authorities are taking steps to improve the business climate. Zimbabwe has eased business start-up by reducing registration fees and initiated a process to speed up the name search process and company and tax registration. In addition, the corporate income tax rate was reduced from 30% to 25%, the capital gains tax was lowered from 20% to 5%, and the payment of corporate income tax was simplified by allowing quarterly payment through commercial banks.

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  • Message Format The MTP3 portion of an SS7 message consists of two fields: the Signaling Information Field (SIF) and the Service Information Octet (SIO). The SIF contains routing information and the actual payload data being transported by the MTP3 service.

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  • The wording was changed on eight prob- lems for greater clarity. Still, the list of potential business problems assessed in 2012 closely resembles the list produced in prior years. The publication format is also similar in all editions. The publications begin with an overview of results from the total population of small-busi- ness owner respondents. They then examine the most important problems, the least impor- tant problems, problems on which there is most and least consensus, the relative importance of various problems clustered by topic, changes in ranking from prior surveys, etc.

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  • The widespread deployment of sensors is transforming the physical world into a computing platform. Modern sensors not only respond to physical signals to produce data, they also embed computing and communication capabilities. They are thus able to store, process locally and transfer the data they produce. Still, at the heart of each sensor, a set of signal processing functions transform physical signals such as heat, light, sound, pressure,...

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  • In this report, we have focused our attention on identifying intracellular mammalian proteins that bind S100A12 in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner. Using S100A12 affinity chroma-tography, we have identified cytosolic NADP + -dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase A (aldolase), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehy-drogenese (GAPDH), annexin V, S100A9, and S100A12 itself as S100A12-binding proteins. Immunoprecipitation experiments indicated the formation of stable complexes between S100A12 and IDH, aldolase, GAPDH, annexin V and S100A9in vivo....

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  • In the experiments reviewed in this post only two electroencephalographic channels "C3 and C4 "were considered to capture the endogenous electroencephalographic signals from the subject. To create favorable conditions for the use of this technology is important to make it easy use, "cosmosis" or how the user's device look like wearing BCI is also important, this is the reason that the number of electrodes used in these devices is a key global features, such as using fewer electrodes, the higher the comfort (Wolpaw, 2007)....

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  • Members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family of ligands have been identified in a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species and have been shown to play an essential role in a range of biological processes, including mesodermal patterning and organ development, as well as the formation of bone and cartilage.

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  • More than 40 years ago, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) were recognized by their ability to induce ectopic bone and cartilage formation, but it was not until the late 1980s that the proteins responsible for ‘bone formation by autoinduction’ were isolated and sequenced.

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  • During thrombus formation, thrombin, which is abundantly present at sites of vascular injury, activates platelets in part via autocrine-produced ADP. We investigated the signaling pathways by which thrombin and ADP in synergy induced platelet Ca 2+ elevation and procoagulant activity, and we monitored the consequences for the coagulation process.

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