This book is dedicated to the rapidly grown field of microporous ceramic membranes
with separating layers of pore diameter less than 2 nm. In spite of the recent rapid growth
of the research effort directed towards the development of microporous ceramic
membranes the field is still considered to be at its infancy and exhibits a significant future
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The Air Force is in the process of significantly changing the way it purchases goods and services, with the goals of reducing costs and increasing performance to better support its missions. A procurement transformation division was created to lead these implementation efforts, and the new division highlighted two related areas for
E-business research is currently one of the most active research areas. With the rapid advancement in information technologies, e-business is growing in significance and is having a direct impact upon ways of doing business. As e-business becomes one of the most important areas in organizations, researchers and practitioners need to understand the implications of many technological and organizational changes taking place.
In the preface to the fourth edition of this text, the late Dr. Francis
McKelvey remarked that the technological and legislative developments
related to the air transportation industry in the 1980s
and early 1990s were of such significance that an updating of the book
was needed. The fourth edition, published in 1994, enhanced previous
editions, the first of which was published in 1962.
am sincerely appreciative of the many public and private institutions that
have provided resource material from which I was able to shape this text. In
this regard, I am particularly indebted to the Federal Aviation Administration
for their numerous publications.
Faculty and students at University Aviation Association institutions who have
reviewed material in the previous four editions have significantly shaped this
book. To them I owe a special thanks because they represent the true constituency
of any textbook author....
In the past, the government often tried to ensure that we pay "a fair rate" of interest by
implementing usury ceilings or limits on the rates that lenders can charge. During the 1980s
there was a general trend toward eliminating or raising these limits as policy-makers
reacted to the high inflation and record interest rates of the late 1970s. During the early
1990s, however, the trend reversed as some suggested that caps should be placed on credit
card rates, which remained at historically high levels while other key interest rates declined
Irish IFs are owned mainly by non-residents, with 26 per cent held by other euro area
residents and 68 per cent held by those outside the euro area and just 6 per cent owned by
Irish residents. This breakdown reflects a significant move in ownership away from euro area
residents to the rest of the world over recent quarters. Similarly most assets owned by Irish
resident IFs are domiciled outside the state. When unclassified assets are excluded, just 9.4
per cent of capital is invested in Irish assets, 13.5 per cent invested...
Opportunity funds have delivered higher returns than core funds over the
period 2003-2009. While core fund returns have been especially
disappointing, deeper analysis suggests that the additional returns delivered
by the opportunity funds may not be adequate to compensate
investors for the significantly higher levels of risk taken by fund managers to
achieve these returns.
There was complete agreement among two independent raters in classifying 327
reproductive messages out of a total of 362 references taken from a representative sample
of the opera and art songs, which represents an inter-rater agreement of over 90%.
Figure 4 depicts the results. A t-test failed to demonstrate a significant difference in
the number of reproductive categories between the opera and art songs, t(104) = .6098, p =
As with every hypothesis test, inference based on alpha estimates can lead to the detection
of a lucky fund, namely a fund with a significant estimated alpha, while its true
alpha is equal to zero. When a single performance test is run on the estimated alpha
of one fund (or one portfolio of funds1), luck is easily controlled by setting the significance
level γ (or alternatively the Size of the test). For instance, if γ is set to 0.05,
the probability of finding one lucky fund under the hypothesis that its alpha is zero
amounts to 0.05, by construction.
The economy continues to undergo structural change as it shifts
from being dominated by the agricultural sector. The shares of the
service and industry sector in real GDP have increased over the last
three decades, whereas agriculture accounts for little more than
10% today compared to 25% in the mid-1970s. Because of the
widely diverging labour productivities in the different sectors and
significant employment of unpaid family workers in agriculture these
changes are not fully reflected in the sectors’ shares in employment.
Faster incorporation of new technologies into complex products and systems holds the possibility
of ever-increasing advantages in cost, performance, durability, and new functionalities. A general
perception on the part of many investigators is that incorporation of change is more difficult, expensive,
and slow than it need be. The management of change in complex products and systems, however, does
require an understanding of the significance of those changes as well as their consequences in terms of
product performance and safety.
Nitrogen, found in commercial fertilizers and manure, is applied in many different chemical forms. Bacteria can
convert all of them to nitrate, a form of nitrogen that can be taken up by plant roots. Nitrate is very soluble in
water and is easily carried from farm fields into streams and rivers. Perforated pipes called tiles, which farmers
bury under their fields to manage water drainage in an effort to maximize crop production, make the situation
Individuals and businesses desire a certain quality from a GI service for which they are willing to
pay a certain amount of money. If that GI service fails to meet the expectations in terms of quality and
price, the service requestor is likely to patronize another provider. The availability of gradually
differentiated quality versions of a GI service offered by a provider as a GI service product line
enforces the user to self-select the price-quality combination that satisfies her or his needs.
The role of “mechanization” also needs consideration. Firstly, the asset base of farms must be
appropriate to their needs – over capitalization will result in unprofitable farming. Secondly, it should be
emphasised that the issue is management, and that mechanization is necessary to support modern
management, no more and no less.
A developed dairy industry including mechanised farms can create eight types of different
entrepreneurs in the village.
The retail sector spearheaded the evolution of Turkey’s commercial
property market. Within a few years, domestic retailers expanded
and consolidated to form regional and national chains. Cross-border
retailers entered the market, benefiting from the country’s strong
economic growth, limited legal barriers to entry and attracted by high
The principal forms of doing business in India are the limited liability company (public company
or private company); limited liability partnership (LLP); partnership firm; association of persons;
representative office, branch office, project office or site office of a foreign company; and trust.
Foreign investors may adopt any recognized form of business enterprise. The limited liability
company is the most widely used and the most suitable form for a foreign direct investor. Joint
ventures also are popular.
It is important to note that NPDES permits are only required of so-called “point sources.”
Point sources tend to be larger industrial and commercial facilities and public treatment facilities.
Some large agricultural operations are considered point sources, but, by and large, runoff from
farms, roads, lawns, and most small pollution sources are not directly regulated. These
“nonpoint sources” are the subject of increased scrutiny, since most of the nation’s remaining
water quality problems are due to nonpoint pollution.