Significant phrases

Xem 1-19 trên 19 kết quả Significant phrases
  • The most powerful and the most perfect expression of thought and feeling through the medium of oral language must be traced to the mastery of words. Nothing is better suited to lead speakers and readers of English into an easy control of this language than the command of the phrase that perfectly expresses the thought. Every speaker‟s aim is to be heard and understood. A clear, crisp articulation holds an audience as by the spell of some irresistible power.

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  • We present a simple and scalable algorithm for clustering tens of millions of phrases and use the resulting clusters as features in discriminative classifiers. To demonstrate the power and generality of this approach, we apply the method in two very different applications: named entity recognition and query classification. Our results show that phrase clusters offer significant improvements over word clusters. Our NER system achieves the best current result on the widely used CoNLL benchmark.

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  • Non-compositional expressions present a special challenge to NLP applications. We present a method for automatic identification of non-compositional expressions using their statistical properties in a text corpus. Our method is based on the hypothesis that when a phrase is non-composition, its mutual information differs significantly from the mutual informations of phrases obtained by substituting one of the word in the phrase with a similar word.

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  • Recent advances in functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) offer a significant new approach to studying semantic representations in humans by making it possible to directly observe brain activity while people comprehend words and sentences. In this study, we investigate how humans comprehend adjective-noun phrases (e.g. strong dog) while their neural activity is recorded. Classification analysis shows that the distributed pattern of neural activity contains sufficient signal to decode differences among phrases. ...

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  • There is renewed interest in examining the descriptive as well as generative power of phrase s~-~uctur~ grammars. The primary motivation has come from the recent investigations in alternatives to t-~ansfor~ational gremmmrs [e.g., i, 2, 3, 4]. We will present several results and ideas related to phrase structure trees which have significant relevance to computational linguistics. We %~_nT to accomplish several objectives in this paper. I.

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  • In fact, the ability to handle idiosyncratic behavior of phrases should be a criterion for any theory of lexical representation. Due to the huge number of such phrases in the English language, phrase representation must be amenable to parsing, generation, and also to learning. In this paper we demonstrate a semantic representation which facilitates, for a wide variety of phrases, both learning and parsing.

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  • Today, at work or other activities, the email in English has become so popular. So, practice writing in English will improve your vocabulary significantly. If you are taking an apprenticeship program in Alberta, you must meet the educational requirements for your trade before you can start your technical training.

    pdf97p doan137 05-05-2010 1937 886   Download

  • This paper discusses research on distinguishing word meanings in the context of information retrieval systems. We conducted experiments with three sources of evidence for making these distinctions: morphology, part-of-speech, and phrases. We have focused on the distinction between h o m o n y m y and polysemy (unrelated vs. related meanings). Our results support the need to distinguish h o m o n y m y and p o l y semy. We found: 1) grouping morphological variants makes a significant improvement in retrieval performance, 2) that more than half of all words in a dictionary that differ...

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  • The twelve years since the publication of the first edition of Clinical Anesthesia have witnessed some of the most significant advances our specialty has ever seen. In 1989, the term “managed care” was a new phrase in the health-care lexicon. In contrast, both the medical and economic considerations now play an important role in the care of all patients. The mortality rate from all anesthetic causes has plummeted, and operating rooms are now considered among the safest sites in the hospital.

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  • DURING THE SUMMER of 1973, with Watergate unfolding and Willie Mays redefining the phrase “stick a fork in him,” my father was wavering between a new motorcyle and a single season ticket for the Celtics. The IRS had just given him a significant income tax refund of either $200 (the figure Dad remembers) or $600 (the figure my mother remembers). They both agree on one thing: Mom threatened to leave him if he bought the motorcycle.

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  • There is thus a significant body of opinion that for some learners what is needed is the learning and recollection of bits of text exemplifying useful 'sentence patterns' and word or phrase use. Our experience is that such learners are in the majority, certainly among the young.

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  • The declaration of "the rights of man and of citizens" by the French Constituent Assembly on August 26, 1789, is one of the most significant events of the French Revolution. It has been criticised from different points of view with directly opposing results. The political scientist and the historian, thoroughly appreciating its importance, have repeatedly come to the conclusion that the Declaration had no small part in the anarchy with which France was visited soon after the storming of the Bastille.

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  • In this paper, we study different centrality measures being used in predicting noun phrases appearing in the abstracts of scientific articles. Our experimental results show that centrality measures improve the accuracy of the prediction in terms of both precision and recall. We also found that the method of constructing Noun Phrase Network significantly influences the accuracy when using the centrality heuristics itself, but is negligible when it is used together with other text features in decision trees. ...

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  • In this paper we first propose a new statistical parsing model, which is a generative model of lexicalised context-free grammar. We then extend the model to include a probabilistic treatment of both subcategorisation and wh-movement. Results on Wall Street Journal text show that the parser performs at 88.1/87.5% constituent precision/recall, an average improvement of 2.3% over (Collins 96). is derived from the analysis given in Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar (Gazdar et al. 95).

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  • This paper proposes to use monolingual collocations to improve Statistical Machine Translation (SMT). We make use of the collocation probabilities, which are estimated from monolingual corpora, in two aspects, namely improving word alignment for various kinds of SMT systems and improving phrase table for phrase-based SMT. The experimental results show that our method improves the performance of both word alignment and translation quality significantly.

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  • Current tree-to-tree models suffer from parsing errors as they usually use only 1best parses for rule extraction and decoding. We instead propose a forest-based tree-to-tree model that uses packed forests. The model is based on a probabilistic synchronous tree substitution grammar (STSG), which can be learned from aligned forest pairs automatically. The decoder finds ways of decomposing trees in the source forest into elementary trees using the source projection of STSG while building target forest in parallel.

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  • This paper examines whether a learningbased coreference resolver can be improved using semantic class knowledge that is automatically acquired from a version of the Penn Treebank in which the noun phrases are labeled with their semantic classes. Experiments on the ACE test data show that a resolver that employs such induced semantic class knowledge yields a statistically significant improvement of 2% in F-measure over one that exploits heuristically computed semantic class knowledge. In addition, the induced knowledge improves the accuracy of common noun resolution by 2-6%. ...

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  • Free-word order languages have long posed significant problems for s t a n d a r d parsing algorithms. This paper reports on an implemented parser, based on GovernmentBinding theory (GB) (Chomsky, 1981, 1982), for a particular free-word order language, Warlpiri, an aboriginal language of central Australia. The parser is explicitly designed to transparently mirror the principles of GB. The operation of this parsing system is quite different in character from that of a rule-based parsing system, ~e.g., a context-free parsing method.

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  • Intuitively, a Ruantifier is any word or phrase that expresses a meaning that answers one of the questions "How many?" or "How much?" Typical English examples include all, no, many, few, some but not many, all but at most a ver~ few, wherever, whoever, whoever there is, and also, it can be argued, 0nly (Keenan, 1971), also (Cushing, 1978b), and the (Chomsky, 1977). In this paper we review an empirically motivated analysis of such meanings (Cushing, 1976; 1982a) and draw out its computational significance.

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