We do not find economically or statistically significant differences in fees (expenses,
loads, or a measure of the total ownership cost of mutual fund shares) between SRI and similar
conventional funds. Therefore, either there are no significant differences in the way fees are set
for SRI and conventional funds, or the effects of those differences cancel out on average.
Consistent with the results for before-fee performance and fees, we find that SRI funds
obtain a higher after-fee risk-adjusted performance in terms of four-factor alpha than similar
conventional funds. ...
However, such a strategy is inappropriate for the United States in current
circumstances. Inflation expectations appear reasonably well-anchored, and both
inflation expectations and actual inflation remain within a range consistent with price
stability. In this context, raising the inflation objective would likely entail much greater
costs than benefits. Inflation would be higher and probably more volatile under such a
policy, undermining confidence and the ability of firms and households to make longer-
term plans, while squandering the Fed’s hard-won inflation credibility.
Throughout 2011, social media usage continued to grow significantly
across the Arab world, coupled with major shifts in usage trends. From
merely being used as a tool for social networking and entertainment,
social media now infiltrates almost every aspect of the daily lives of
millions of Arabs, affecting the way they interact socially, do business,
interact with government, or engage in civil society movements.
The Logical Framework Approach is an analytical and
management tool which is now used (in one form or
another) by most multi-lateral and bi-lateral aid
agencies, international NGOs and by many partner
governments. Indeed, the EC generally requires the
development of a Logframe Matrix as part of its
project formulation procedures for external
assistance. This Guideline therefore gives emphasis to
the application of the Logical Framework Approach at
the various stages of the project management cycle.
Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has become the leading cross-sectional imaging method
in clinical practice. Since the 1980s, continuous improvements in hardware and software
have significantly broadened the scope of applications. At present, MR imaging is
not only the most important technique in neuroradiology and musculoskeletal radiology,
but has also become an invaluable diagnostic tool for abdominal, pelvic, cardiac, breast
and vascular imaging.
The big question is, though, how effective are these marketing ploys? Am I really going
to go out and buy Proactive Acne Solution because I think it will do for me what it did for
Jessica Simpson? National studies buy the FCC have said yes. As Sue Jozui’s brilliant and
accurate statement says, the audience subject to celebrity oriented advertisements is expected to
relate approval of the particular celebrity with the approval of the product. This is true, and
certainly insults the intelligence of the target audience.
Another literature examines whether asset managers or sell-side analysts are better able to
collect private information on equities of corporations in their geographic area. For instance,
Coval and Moskowitz (1999) nd that fund managers are better able to select stocks of rms
headquartered nearby, while Cohen, Frazzini, and Malloy (2008) nd that fund managers with
past educational ties to corporate managers overweight and outperform in the stocks of those
There is some evidence of ‘alpha’ being generated by fund managers through
'skilful transaction activity and asset management. Opportunity fund
managers also appear to have generated superior returns through controlling
the timing of the buying and selling of assets, although, with performance
fees generally charged on IRRs rather than time-weighted returns, it is open to
debate as to whom this benefits more - the investor or the fund manager.
It is increasingly common to find tables with thousands of col-
umns – they arise when a particular object has thousands of meas-
ured attributes. Not infrequently, many of the values are null. For
example, an LDAP object has 7 required and a thousand optional
attributes. It is convenient to think of each object as a row of a
table, but representing it that way is very inefficient – both in
But large numbers of education Volunteers have enjoyed the challenge of making the impossible
possible. They've developed coping strategies and ways of teaching effectively in very large
classes. This book brings you some of those strategies in the hope that they will be of use to you.
We have included practical, obvious, and bold suggestions that have been made by Volunteers
Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) in well-established programs such as in
francophone Gabon, or Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) in newer projects such
At the completion of work, the CQAM, PM, and WSDOT jointly conduct a final inspection of
the project. The final inspection includes inspection of the completed work, associated as-built
documents, certifications, and other documentation and contractor punch list item review. The
inspection is accomplished within five business days of notification that the project is ready for
During the inspection, quality control documentation may be reviewed.
Using these examples and broadened conceptual boundaries, the authors proudly proclaimed
that, "marketing has taken a new lease on life and tied its economic activity to a higher social
purpose" (Kotler & Levy 1969, p15). One eminent marketing academic was quick to attempt
to temper such ambitious claims. He was concerned that when views were propounded by
such prominent authors as Kot ler and Levy their uncritical acceptance seemed likely, so
contrary opinions needed a vigorous voice (Luck 1969).
At the end of each testing session, the moderator, notetaker, and observer debriefed as a
group, identifying and summarizing the major themes and establishing what they
thought was or was not working in the notice. These summaries helped us hypothesize
the results of the testing. We used these explicit statements to triangulate7
and to test findings for biases that either confirm or refute hypotheses.
• There is need to diversify urban-development activities within the
municipality. An outward spread of these development activities and the creation
of satellite towns in areas such as Olkaria, Sulmac and Sharlimar would minimise
the pressure on the natural environment, land, forests, air and water resources, as
well as on the capacities of socio-economic infrastructures such as sewerage and
water supply facilities and roads. This will also result in a reduction of land use
conflicts, which is a major cause of environmental degradation in any given urban
Usually, art production is dealt
with by theories of creativity or portraits of the individual artist, while the
viewer’s encounter with art is considered in analyses of aesthetic experience
or explained by reference to empirical data about the mind/brain. This ap-
proach makes it seem as if artist and viewer relate to art in radically diﬀerent
ways. It may appear reasonable, inasmuch as the viewer’s relationship to art
in comparison to that of the artist is predominantly passive.
Yet without good metrics and tangible evidence of impact, the majority of the executives in the survey said
their organizations cannot take social media efforts seriously. And that poses a challenge for companies,
says Avinash Kaushik, Google’s Analytics Evangelist and author of Web Analytics 2.0, because social
media can build up a great deal of data, but not necessarily generate great insights that translate into
action and then more customers and sales.
In addition to the remuneration paid to all non executive directors3, each
company should consider the further remuneration that should be paid
to members of the audit committee to recompense them for the
additional responsibilities of membership. Consideration should be
given to the time members are required to give to audit committee
business, the skills they bring to bear and the onerous duties they take
on, as well as the value of their work to the company.
This section deals with "cosmetic" rust repairs, on panels that do not form part of the vehicles load-bearing
structure. Any repairs to chassis, frame or mounting points of any type must be carried out to a professional
standard, which is not the intended scope of this section.
Rust repairs generally cover two areas; surface rust and rust holes (perforation ) Surface rust can usually be
removed and held at bay successfully, perforated metalwork will need much more extensive work to provide a
the case studies that follow, from across sub-saharan africa, south asia, europe and central
asia, latin america and north america, highlight the rich diversity of community initiatives that
bridge sexual and reproductive health and rights and Hiv. the report has a strategic emphasis
on the innovation that is being led by women living with Hiv and features pioneering endeavours
that reflect community and key stakeholder interpretation and understanding of how this
intersection is defined.