Xem 1-20 trên 119 kết quả Simple contexts
  • We present a statistical model of Japanese unknown words consisting of a set of length and spelling models classified by the character types that constitute a word. The point is quite simple: different character sets should be treated differently and the changes between character types are very important because Japanese script has both ideograms like Chinese (kanji) and phonograms like English (katakana). Both word segmentation accuracy and part of speech tagging accuracy are improved by the proposed model. ...

    pdf8p bunrieu_1 18-04-2013 11 4   Download

  • We present a novel pruning method for context-free parsing that increases efficiency by disallowing phrase-level unary productions in CKY chart cells spanning a single word. Our work is orthogonal to recent work on “closing” chart cells, which has focused on multi-word constituents, leaving span-1 chart cells unpruned. We show that a simple discriminative classifier can learn with high accuracy which span-1 chart cells to close to phrase-level unary productions.

    pdf6p hongdo_1 12-04-2013 24 3   Download

  • It is critical for internal audit to develop a systematic means to analyse risk. Risk is any event that could prevent the company from achieving its business objectives. A risk assessment allows the auditor to consider how potential events might affect the achievement of business objectives. The risk assessment process begins by defining the audit universe. The audit universe includes all of the business units, processes and operations. Next, the auditor must understand the company’s business model within the context of its industry and its key business objectives.

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  • This paper describes ongoing work on distributional models for word meaning in context. We abandon the usual one-vectorper-word paradigm in favor of an exemplar model that activates only relevant occurrences. On a paraphrasing task, we find that a simple exemplar model outperforms more complex state-of-the-art models.

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  • We present a method for lexical simplification. Simplification rules are learned from a comparable corpus, and the rules are applied in a context-aware fashion to input sentences. Our method is unsupervised. Furthermore, it does not require any alignment or correspondence among the complex and simple corpora. We evaluate the simplification according to three criteria: preservation of grammaticality, preservation of meaning, and degree of simplification.

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  • We present a method for the computation of prefix probabilities for synchronous contextfree grammars. Our framework is fairly general and relies on the combination of a simple, novel grammar transformation and standard techniques to bring grammars into normal forms.

    pdf10p hongdo_1 12-04-2013 14 1   Download

  • This set of candidate surface strings, represented as a word lattice, is then rescored by a wordbigram language model, to produce the bestranked output sentence. FERGUS (Bangalore and Rambow, 2000), on the other hand, employs a model of syntactic structure during sentence realization. In simple terms, it adds a tree-based stochastic model to the approach taken by the Nitrogen system. This tree-based model chooses a best-ranked XTAG representation for a given dependency structure.

    pdf8p bunmoc_1 20-04-2013 12 1   Download

  • Progress on natural language interfaces can perhaps be stimulated or directed by imagining the ideal natural language system of the future. What features (or even design philosophies) should such a system have in order to become an integral part of our work environments? What scaled-down versions of these features might be possible in the near future in "simple service systems" [2]? These issues can be broken down into the following four questions: i.

    pdf2p bungio_1 03-05-2013 13 1   Download

  • We use a machine learner trained on a combination of acoustic and contextual features to predict the accuracy of incoming n-best automatic speech recognition (ASR) hypotheses to a spoken dialogue system (SDS). Our novel approach is to use a simple statistical User Simulation (US) for this task, which measures the likelihood that the user would say each hypothesis in the current context. Such US models are now common in machine learning approaches to SDS, are trained on real dialogue data, and are related to theories of “alignment” in psycholinguistics.

    pdf9p bunthai_1 06-05-2013 18 1   Download

  • It has a carefully graded, structural syllabus which provides steady progression in all four skills. The emphasis on grammar and vocabulary acquisition is combined with many opportunities for lively communicative tasks. New language is presented in context through picture stories and a variety of entertaining characters. Practice and reinforcement is provided by child-centred activities such as songs, rhymes, and games. Colourful illustrations and photographs provide visual explanations and make the pages bright and attractive.

    pdf81p hikarijun 26-07-2013 195 66   Download

  • Thus, after buying into winning funds, investors unwittingly benefit from momentum returns on winning stocks. To test this reasoning, Sapp and Tiwari calculate abnormal performance following money f lows with and without accounting for the momentum factor, and find that inclusion of the momentum factor in the performance evaluation proce- dure eliminates outperformance of high f low funds. In addition, they show that investors are not deliberate in seeking to benefit from stock-level momentum: More popular funds do not have higher exposure to themomentumfactor at the time they are selected.

    pdf239p khanhchilam 29-03-2013 32 10   Download

  • Under certain conditions, the Company may use options and futures on securities, indices and interest rates, as described in Section 3.2. "Sub-Fund Details" and Appendix 3 "Restrictions on the use of techniques and instruments" for the purpose of investment, hedging and efficient portfolio management. In addition, where appropriate, the Company may hedge market and currency risks using futures, options or forward foreign exchange contracts. Transactions in futures carry a high degree of risk.

    pdf361p dangsuynghi 15-03-2013 21 7   Download

  • Asset management industry in Thailand has followed the omega model as defined by Bogle (2004) by which the distribution of returns and benefits from managing mutual funds are explored. As Thailand is the bank base economy, major Thai asset management companies are commercial bank capital market arms. We defined asset management companies (AMC) associated with commercial bank as bank related (BR) AMC. Often, questions regarding products variety and competitive situation among Thai AMC are raised and there is no research explores or answers the aforementioned questions. ...

    pdf0p hongphuocidol 04-04-2013 26 7   Download

  • Literature: When reading literature, students must demonstrate their capacity to pay special attention to the choices authors make about words and structures. Many literary effects depend on the order in which events unfold and the specific details used to describe characters and actions. Since these same strategies—order and use of detail—are equally critical in understanding the most demanding informational texts, reading literature helps students comprehend what they read in science, history and other subjects.

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  • Finally, the requirements that a fund has to fulfill in order to be included in the SIF's listing of SRI funds are not stringent. For example, a fund could be on the list just by having a formal policy of excluding companies with interests in the tobacco business. If the constraints that SRI (as defined in our data set) imposes on fund managers are minor, the performance of SRI mutual funds should not be expected to be lower than that of conventional funds. It is important to highlight that the estimated performance differences between SRI and conventional funds cannot...

    pdf39p khanhchilam 29-03-2013 22 6   Download

  • The issue of disparity and inequalities between black and minority ethnic groups and the majority white population in rates of mental ill health and equality of service in terms of experience and outcomes has figured in government policy since Labour took office in 1997. The death of an African-Caribbean patient named David Bennett in a secure psychiatric unit whilst detained under the Mental Health Act (1983) and the subsequent inquiry report published in 2003 found the NHS to be “institutionally racist”.

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  • Psychological rather than informational differences may explain much of the variation in financial capability reported in the FSA (2006) Baseline Survey. This applies both to differences between individuals and across competence dimensions. The Baseline Survey indicates that in most capability categories, scores improve with age and the level of general education. This is consistent with the importance of attitudes rather than teachable specific knowledge.

    pdf100p mebachano 01-02-2013 20 5   Download

  • distributors have a limited incentive to invest on training and improving the awareness, knowledge and skill of distributors. Economic compulsions could see companies move towards a committed distributorship system. Alternate lower cost distribution channels: Other avenues for AMCs to diversify their distribution base could include an examination of distribution channels prevalent in other industries, especially those that involve a low distribution cost— such as the FMCG industry.

    pdf6p hongphuocidol 04-04-2013 20 5   Download

  • A battle cry of the reform is “Mathematics for all! ” In an attempt to make this come true, there is presently a conscientious effort to spread the news that “Math is fun! ” While applauding the good intention, we never- theless must ask whether the constant repetition of this slogan like a mantra helps students learn mathematics. Have students been told that this kind of “fun” includes the fun of working hard to solve difficult problems? Nothing good comes cheaply, and learning mathematics is no exception.

    pdf127p dacotaikhoan 25-04-2013 14 5   Download

  • Inform or Explain: Writing to inform or explain requires students to integrate complex information from multiple sources in a lucid fashion, such as facts about a new technological application or a set of workplace procedures. To achieve coherence, students must illustrate the connections between ideas and events, such as cause and effect. Students also must organize their description or explanation in a manner appropriate to the context, responding to the specific needs of the reader by both covering the relevant ground and anticipating confusions that might arise.

    pdf33p commentcmnr 03-06-2013 22 5   Download

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