We present a statistical model of Japanese unknown words consisting of a set of length and spelling models classified by the character types that constitute a word. The point is quite simple: different character sets should be treated differently and the changes between character types are very important because Japanese script has both ideograms like Chinese (kanji) and phonograms like English (katakana). Both word segmentation accuracy and part of speech tagging accuracy are improved by the proposed model. ...
We present a novel pruning method for context-free parsing that increases efﬁciency by disallowing phrase-level unary productions in CKY chart cells spanning a single word. Our work is orthogonal to recent work on “closing” chart cells, which has focused on multi-word constituents, leaving span-1 chart cells unpruned. We show that a simple discriminative classiﬁer can learn with high accuracy which span-1 chart cells to close to phrase-level unary productions.
It is critical for internal audit to develop a systematic means to analyse risk. Risk is
any event that could prevent the company from achieving its business objectives.
A risk assessment allows the auditor to consider how potential events might affect
the achievement of business objectives. The risk assessment process begins by
defining the audit universe. The audit universe includes all of the business units,
processes and operations. Next, the auditor must understand the company’s
business model within the context of its industry and its key business
This paper describes ongoing work on distributional models for word meaning in context. We abandon the usual one-vectorper-word paradigm in favor of an exemplar model that activates only relevant occurrences. On a paraphrasing task, we ﬁnd that a simple exemplar model outperforms more complex state-of-the-art models.
We present a method for lexical simpliﬁcation. Simpliﬁcation rules are learned from a comparable corpus, and the rules are applied in a context-aware fashion to input sentences. Our method is unsupervised. Furthermore, it does not require any alignment or correspondence among the complex and simple corpora. We evaluate the simpliﬁcation according to three criteria: preservation of grammaticality, preservation of meaning, and degree of simpliﬁcation.
We present a method for the computation of preﬁx probabilities for synchronous contextfree grammars. Our framework is fairly general and relies on the combination of a simple, novel grammar transformation and standard techniques to bring grammars into normal forms.
This set of candidate surface strings, represented as a word lattice, is then rescored by a wordbigram language model, to produce the bestranked output sentence. FERGUS (Bangalore and Rambow, 2000), on the other hand, employs a model of syntactic structure during sentence realization. In simple terms, it adds a tree-based stochastic model to the approach taken by the Nitrogen system. This tree-based model chooses a best-ranked XTAG representation for a given dependency structure.
Progress on natural language interfaces can perhaps be stimulated or directed by imagining the ideal natural language system of the future. What features (or even design philosophies) should such a system have in order to become an integral part of our work environments? What scaled-down versions of these features might be possible in the near future in "simple service systems" ? These issues can be broken down into the following four questions: i.
We use a machine learner trained on a combination of acoustic and contextual features to predict the accuracy of incoming n-best automatic speech recognition (ASR) hypotheses to a spoken dialogue system (SDS). Our novel approach is to use a simple statistical User Simulation (US) for this task, which measures the likelihood that the user would say each hypothesis in the current context. Such US models are now common in machine learning approaches to SDS, are trained on real dialogue data, and are related to theories of “alignment” in psycholinguistics.
It has a carefully graded, structural syllabus which provides steady progression in all four skills.
The emphasis on grammar and vocabulary acquisition is combined with many opportunities for lively communicative tasks.
New language is presented in context through picture stories and a variety of entertaining characters. Practice and reinforcement is provided by child-centred activities such as songs, rhymes, and games.
Colourful illustrations and photographs provide visual explanations and make the pages bright and attractive.
Thus, after buying into winning funds,
investors unwittingly benefit from momentum returns on winning stocks. To
test this reasoning, Sapp and Tiwari calculate abnormal performance following
money f lows with and without accounting for the momentum factor, and find
that inclusion of the momentum factor in the performance evaluation proce-
dure eliminates outperformance of high f low funds. In addition, they show that
investors are not deliberate in seeking to benefit from stock-level momentum:
More popular funds do not have higher exposure to themomentumfactor at the
time they are selected.
Under certain conditions, the Company may use options and futures on securities, indices and interest rates, as described in Section
3.2. "Sub-Fund Details" and Appendix 3 "Restrictions on the use of techniques and instruments" for the purpose of investment, hedging
and efficient portfolio management. In addition, where appropriate, the Company may hedge market and currency risks using futures,
options or forward foreign exchange contracts.
Transactions in futures carry a high degree of risk.
Asset management industry in Thailand has followed the omega model as defined by Bogle
(2004) by which the distribution of returns and benefits from managing mutual funds are explored. As
Thailand is the bank base economy, major Thai asset management companies are commercial bank
capital market arms. We defined asset management companies (AMC) associated with commercial
bank as bank related (BR) AMC. Often, questions regarding products variety and competitive situation
among Thai AMC are raised and there is no research explores or answers the aforementioned
Literature: When reading literature, students must demonstrate their capacity to pay special attention to
the choices authors make about words and structures. Many literary effects depend on the order in which
events unfold and the specific details used to describe characters and actions. Since these same
strategies—order and use of detail—are equally critical in understanding the most demanding
informational texts, reading literature helps students comprehend what they read in science, history and
Finally, the requirements that a fund has to fulfill in order to be included in the SIF's listing
of SRI funds are not stringent. For example, a fund could be on the list just by having a formal
policy of excluding companies with interests in the tobacco business. If the constraints that SRI
(as defined in our data set) imposes on fund managers are minor, the performance of SRI mutual
funds should not be expected to be lower than that of conventional funds. It is important to
highlight that the estimated performance differences between SRI and conventional funds
The issue of disparity and inequalities between black and minority ethnic groups and the
majority white population in rates of mental ill health and equality of service in terms of
experience and outcomes has figured in government policy since Labour took office in 1997.
The death of an African-Caribbean patient named David Bennett in a secure psychiatric unit
whilst detained under the Mental Health Act (1983) and the subsequent inquiry report
published in 2003 found the NHS to be “institutionally racist”.
Psychological rather than informational differences may explain much of the
variation in financial capability reported in the FSA (2006) Baseline Survey. This
applies both to differences between individuals and across competence dimensions.
The Baseline Survey indicates that in most capability categories, scores improve with
age and the level of general education. This is consistent with the importance of
attitudes rather than teachable specific knowledge.
distributors have a limited incentive to
invest on training and improving the
awareness, knowledge and skill of
distributors. Economic compulsions could
see companies move towards a committed
Alternate lower cost distribution channels:
Other avenues for AMCs to diversify
their distribution base could include an
examination of distribution channels
prevalent in other industries, especially
those that involve a low distribution cost—
such as the FMCG industry.
A battle cry of the reform is “Mathematics for all! ” In an attempt to
make this come true, there is presently a conscientious eﬀort to spread the
news that “Math is fun! ” While applauding the good intention, we never-
theless must ask whether the constant repetition of this slogan like a mantra
helps students learn mathematics. Have students been told that this kind of
“fun” includes the fun of working hard to solve diﬃcult problems? Nothing
good comes cheaply, and learning mathematics is no exception.
Inform or Explain: Writing to inform or explain requires students to integrate
complex information from multiple sources in a lucid fashion, such as facts about
a new technological application or a set of workplace procedures. To achieve
coherence, students must illustrate the connections between ideas and events,
such as cause and effect. Students also must organize their description or
explanation in a manner appropriate to the context, responding to the specific
needs of the reader by both covering the relevant ground and anticipating
confusions that might arise.