DRAM Cell ObservationDRAM Cell Observations.1T DRAM requires a sense amplifier for each bit line, due
to charge redistribution read-out.DRAM memory cells are single ended in contrast to
SRAM cells.The read-out of the 1T DRAM cell is destructive; read
and refresh operations are necessary for correct
This thesis presents time-resolved measurements of the spin evolution of transient carrier populations in III-V quantum wells. Non-equilibrium distributions of spin polarisation were photoexcited and probed with picosecond laser pulses in three samples; a high mobility modulation n-doped sample containing a single GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well, an In0.11Ga0.89As/GaAs sample containing three quantum wells and, a multi-period GaAs/AlGaAs narrow quantum well sample.
The HCMOS MC68HC11A8 is an advanced 8-bit microcontroller (MCU) with highly sophisticated on-chip peripheral capabilities. A fully static design and high-density complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (HCMOS) fabrication process allow E-series devices to operate at frequencies from 3 MHz to dc, with very low power consumption.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Boron and Nitrogen Doped Single walled Carbon Nanotubes as Possible Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors
Contactless Smart Cards
The ﬁrst plastic cards appeared in the USA as early as the beginning of the 1950s, when cheap PVC replaced cardboard. In the years that followed, plastic credit cards became widespread. Incidentally, the ﬁrst credit card was issued by Diners Club in 1950. The rapid development of semiconductor technology made it possible to integrate data memory and protective logic onto a single silicon chip in the 1970s.
In this book, the performance characteristics of distributed feedback semiconductor laser diodes and optical tunable ﬁlters based on DFB laser structures have been investigated. As discussed in Chapter 1, these lasers can be used as optical sources and local oscillators in coherent optical communication networks, in which a stable single mode (in both the transverse plane and the longitudinal direction) and narrow spectral linewidth become crucial.
In the previous chapter, the transfer matrix method (TMM) was introduced to solve the coupled wave equations in DFB laser structures. Its efﬁciency and ﬂexibility in aiding the analysis of DFB semiconductor LDs has been explored theoretically. A general N-sectioned DFB laser model was built which comprised active/passive and corrugated/planar sections. In this chapter, the N-sectioned laser model will be used in the practical design of the DFB laser. The spatial hole burning effect (SHB)  has been known to limit the performance of DFB LDs.
The introduction of semiconductor lasers has boosted the development of coherent optical communication systems. With the built-in wavelength selection mechanism, distributed feedback semiconductor laser diodes with a higher gain margin are superior to the Fabry– Perot laser in that a single longitudinal mode of lasing can be achieved. In this chapter, results obtained from the threshold analysis of conventional and singlephase-shifted DFB lasers will be investigated. In particular, structural impacts on the threshold characteristic will be discussed in a systematic way. ...