Sintering refers to the science and technology of production objects from fines or
powders. Being a very complex phenomenon, sintering covers a broad subject field
and combines chemistry, physics and mechanics. Sintering deals with various material
systems such as metals, non-metals, ceramics, polymers, and their combinations.
Processes of sintering may occur in a wide temperature range - in a solid state as well
as with participation of a liquid phase.
Pottery and ceramics have been an important part of human culture for thousands of
years. From prehistoric storage jars to tiles on the space shuttles, pottery and ceramics
have played a key role in innumerable human endeavors. The art of ceramics is one of
the oldest known, dating to prehistoric times.
Once heated (fired) to between 350⁰ and 800⁰C, the clay is converted to ceramic and
will never dissolve again.
Porous hydroxyapatite ceramic was synthesized by solid phase method using Ca(OH)2 and Ca3(PO4)2 at the temperature interval 200 - 350o C. The samples, after pelleting and sintering, were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Porous structure of hydroxyapatite was obtained with the 42 – 55% porosity.
Temperature Measurement in Industrial Appliances
The majority of industrial appliances, and especially industrial heating appliances are equipped not only with temperature measurement and recording installations, but also with temperature control systems. The control systems are necessary for optimal, or at least correct, operation of technological processes such as heat treatment of metals, ceramic firing, sintering, melting, drying etc . For these reasons it has been decided to treat also the problems of temperature measurement for control purposes in this chapter .